OSD Config Reference

You can configure Ceph OSD Daemons in the Ceph configuration file, but Ceph OSD Daemons can use the default values and a very minimal configuration. A minimal Ceph OSD Daemon configuration sets osd journal size and host, and uses default values for nearly everything else.

Ceph OSD Daemons are numerically identified in incremental fashion, beginning with 0 using the following convention.

osd.0
osd.1
osd.2

In a configuration file, you may specify settings for all Ceph OSD Daemons in the cluster by adding configuration settings to the [osd] section of your configuration file. To add settings directly to a specific Ceph OSD Daemon (e.g., host), enter it in an OSD-specific section of your configuration file. For example:

[osd]
        osd journal size = 1024

[osd.0]
        host = osd-host-a

[osd.1]
        host = osd-host-b

General Settings

The following settings provide an Ceph OSD Daemon’s ID, and determine paths to data and journals. Ceph deployment scripts typically generate the UUID automatically. We DO NOT recommend changing the default paths for data or journals, as it makes it more problematic to troubleshoot Ceph later.

The journal size should be at least twice the product of the expected drive speed multiplied by filestore max sync interval. However, the most common practice is to partition the journal drive (often an SSD), and mount it such that Ceph uses the entire partition for the journal.

osd uuid

Description:The universally unique identifier (UUID) for the Ceph OSD Daemon.
Type:UUID
Default:The UUID.
Note:The osd uuid applies to a single Ceph OSD Daemon. The fsid applies to the entire cluster.

osd data

Description:The path to the OSDs data. You must create the directory when deploying Ceph. You should mount a drive for OSD data at this mount point. We do not recommend changing the default.
Type:String
Default:/var/lib/ceph/osd/$cluster-$id

osd max write size

Description:The maximum size of a write in megabytes.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:90

osd client message size cap

Description:The largest client data message allowed in memory.
Type:64-bit Integer Unsigned
Default:500MB default. 500*1024L*1024L

osd class dir

Description:The class path for RADOS class plug-ins.
Type:String
Default:$libdir/rados-classes

File System Settings

Ceph builds and mounts file systems which are used for Ceph OSDs.

osd mkfs options {fs-type}

Description:Options used when creating a new Ceph OSD of type {fs-type}.
Type:String
Default for xfs:
 -f -i 2048
Default for other file systems:
 {empty string}
For example::
osd mkfs options xfs = -f -d agcount=24

osd mount options {fs-type}

Description:Options used when mounting a Ceph OSD of type {fs-type}.
Type:String
Default for xfs:
 rw,noatime,inode64
Default for other file systems:
 rw, noatime
For example::
osd mount options xfs = rw, noatime, inode64, logbufs=8

Journal Settings

By default, Ceph expects that you will store an Ceph OSD Daemons journal with the following path:

/var/lib/ceph/osd/$cluster-$id/journal

Without performance optimization, Ceph stores the journal on the same disk as the Ceph OSD Daemons data. An Ceph OSD Daemon optimized for performance may use a separate disk to store journal data (e.g., a solid state drive delivers high performance journaling).

Ceph’s default osd journal size is 0, so you will need to set this in your ceph.conf file. A journal size should find the product of the filestore max sync interval and the expected throughput, and multiply the product by two (2):

osd journal size = {2 * (expected throughput * filestore max sync interval)}

The expected throughput number should include the expected disk throughput (i.e., sustained data transfer rate), and network throughput. For example, a 7200 RPM disk will likely have approximately 100 MB/s. Taking the min() of the disk and network throughput should provide a reasonable expected throughput. Some users just start off with a 10GB journal size. For example:

osd journal size = 10000

osd journal

Description:The path to the OSD’s journal. This may be a path to a file or a block device (such as a partition of an SSD). If it is a file, you must create the directory to contain it. We recommend using a drive separate from the osd data drive.
Type:String
Default:/var/lib/ceph/osd/$cluster-$id/journal

osd journal size

Description:The size of the journal in megabytes. If this is 0, and the journal is a block device, the entire block device is used. Since v0.54, this is ignored if the journal is a block device, and the entire block device is used.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:5120
Recommended:Begin with 1GB. Should be at least twice the product of the expected speed multiplied by filestore max sync interval.

See Journal Config Reference for additional details.

Monitor OSD Interaction

Ceph OSD Daemons check each other’s heartbeats and report to monitors periodically. Ceph can use default values in many cases. However, if your network has latency issues, you may need to adopt longer intervals. See Configuring Monitor/OSD Interaction for a detailed discussion of heartbeats.

Data Placement

See Pool & PG Config Reference for details.

Scrubbing

In addition to making multiple copies of objects, Ceph insures data integrity by scrubbing placement groups. Ceph scrubbing is analogous to fsck on the object storage layer. For each placement group, Ceph generates a catalog of all objects and compares each primary object and its replicas to ensure that no objects are missing or mismatched. Light scrubbing (daily) checks the object size and attributes. Deep scrubbing (weekly) reads the data and uses checksums to ensure data integrity.

Scrubbing is important for maintaining data integrity, but it can reduce performance. You can adjust the following settings to increase or decrease scrubbing operations.

osd max scrubs

Description:The maximum number of simultaneous scrub operations for a Ceph OSD Daemon.
Type:32-bit Int
Default:1

osd scrub begin hour

Description:The time of day for the lower bound when a scheduled scrub can be performed.
Type:Integer in the range of 0 to 24
Default:0

osd scrub end hour

Description:The time of day for the upper bound when a scheduled scrub can be performed. Along with osd scrub begin hour, they define a time window, in which the scrubs can happen. But a scrub will be performed no matter the time window allows or not, as long as the placement group’s scrub interval exceeds osd scrub max interval.
Type:Integer in the range of 0 to 24
Default:24

osd scrub thread timeout

Description:The maximum time in seconds before timing out a scrub thread.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:60

osd scrub finalize thread timeout

Description:The maximum time in seconds before timing out a scrub finalize thread.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:60*10

osd scrub load threshold

Description:The maximum load. Ceph will not scrub when the system load (as defined by getloadavg()) is higher than this number. Default is 0.5.
Type:Float
Default:0.5

osd scrub min interval

Description:The maximum interval in seconds for scrubbing the Ceph OSD Daemon when the Ceph Storage Cluster load is low.
Type:Float
Default:Once per day. 60*60*24

osd scrub max interval

Description:The maximum interval in seconds for scrubbing the Ceph OSD Daemon irrespective of cluster load.
Type:Float
Default:Once per week. 7*60*60*24

osd deep scrub interval

Description:The interval for “deep” scrubbing (fully reading all data). The osd scrub load threshold does not affect this setting.
Type:Float
Default:Once per week. 60*60*24*7

osd scrub interval randomize ratio

Description:Add a random delay to osd scrub min interval when scheduling the next scrub job for a placement group. The delay is a random value less than osd scrub min interval * osd scrub interval randomized ratio. So the default setting practically randomly spreads the scrubs out in the allowed time window of [1, 1.5] * osd scrub min interval.
Type:Float
Default:0.5

osd deep scrub stride

Description:Read size when doing a deep scrub.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:512 KB. 524288

Operations

Operations settings allow you to configure the number of threads for servicing requests. If you set osd op threads to 0, it disables multi-threading. By default, Ceph uses two threads with a 30 second timeout and a 30 second complaint time if an operation doesn’t complete within those time parameters. You can set operations priority weights between client operations and recovery operations to ensure optimal performance during recovery.

osd op threads

Description:The number of threads to service Ceph OSD Daemon operations. Set to 0 to disable it. Increasing the number may increase the request processing rate.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:2

osd op queue

Description:This sets the type of queue to be used for prioritizing ops in the OSDs. Both queues feature a strict sub-queue which is dequeued before the normal queue. The normal queue is different between implementations. The original PrioritizedQueue (prio) uses a token bucket system which when there are sufficient tokens will dequeue high priority queues first. If there are not enough tokens available, queues are dequeued low priority to high priority. The new WeightedPriorityQueue (wpq) dequeues all priorities in relation to their priorities to prevent starvation of any queue. WPQ should help in cases where a few OSDs are more overloaded than others. Requires a restart.
Type:String
Valid Choices:prio, wpq
Default:prio

osd op queue cut off

Description:This selects which priority ops will be sent to the strict queue verses the normal queue. The low setting sends all replication ops and higher to the strict queue, while the high option sends only replication acknowledgement ops and higher to the strict queue. Setting this to high should help when a few OSDs in the cluster are very busy especially when combined with wpq in the osd op queue setting. OSDs that are very busy handling replication traffic could starve primary client traffic on these OSDs without these settings. Requires a restart.
Type:String
Valid Choices:low, high
Default:low

osd client op priority

Description:The priority set for client operations. It is relative to osd recovery op priority.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:63
Valid Range:1-63

osd recovery op priority

Description:The priority set for recovery operations. It is relative to osd client op priority.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:10
Valid Range:1-63

osd op thread timeout

Description:The Ceph OSD Daemon operation thread timeout in seconds.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:30

osd op complaint time

Description:An operation becomes complaint worthy after the specified number of seconds have elapsed.
Type:Float
Default:30

osd disk threads

Description:The number of disk threads, which are used to perform background disk intensive OSD operations such as scrubbing and snap trimming.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:1

osd disk thread ioprio class

Description:Warning: it will only be used if both osd disk thread ioprio class and osd disk thread ioprio priority are set to a non default value. Sets the ioprio_set(2) I/O scheduling class for the disk thread. Acceptable values are idle, be or rt. The idle class means the disk thread will have lower priority than any other thread in the OSD. This is useful to slow down scrubbing on an OSD that is busy handling client operations. be is the default and is the same priority as all other threads in the OSD. rt means the disk thread will have precendence over all other threads in the OSD. This is useful if scrubbing is much needed and must make progress at the expense of client operations. Note: Only works with the Linux Kernel CFQ scheduler.
Type:String
Default:the empty string

osd disk thread ioprio priority

Description:Warning: it will only be used if both osd disk thread ioprio class and osd disk thread ioprio priority are set to a non default value. It sets the ioprio_set(2) I/O scheduling priority of the disk thread ranging from 0 (highest) to 7 (lowest). If all OSDs on a given host were in class idle and compete for I/O (i.e. due to controller congestion), it can be used to lower the disk thread priority of one OSD to 7 so that another OSD with priority 0 can potentially scrub faster. Note: Only works with the Linux Kernel CFQ scheduler.
Type:Integer in the range of 0 to 7 or -1 if not to be used.
Default:-1

osd op history size

Description:The maximum number of completed operations to track.
Type:32-bit Unsigned Integer
Default:20

osd op history duration

Description:The oldest completed operation to track.
Type:32-bit Unsigned Integer
Default:600

osd op log threshold

Description:How many operations logs to display at once.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:5

Backfilling

When you add or remove Ceph OSD Daemons to a cluster, the CRUSH algorithm will want to rebalance the cluster by moving placement groups to or from Ceph OSD Daemons to restore the balance. The process of migrating placement groups and the objects they contain can reduce the cluster’s operational performance considerably. To maintain operational performance, Ceph performs this migration with ‘backfilling’, which allows Ceph to set backfill operations to a lower priority than requests to read or write data.

osd max backfills

Description:The maximum number of backfills allowed to or from a single OSD.
Type:64-bit Unsigned Integer
Default:1

osd backfill scan min

Description:The minimum number of objects per backfill scan.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:64

osd backfill scan max

Description:The maximum number of objects per backfill scan.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:512

osd backfill full ratio

Description:Refuse to accept backfill requests when the Ceph OSD Daemon’s full ratio is above this value.
Type:Float
Default:0.85

osd backfill retry interval

Description:The number of seconds to wait before retrying backfill requests.
Type:Double
Default:10.0

OSD Map

OSD maps reflect the OSD daemons operating in the cluster. Over time, the number of map epochs increases. Ceph provides some settings to ensure that Ceph performs well as the OSD map grows larger.

osd map dedup

Description:Enable removing duplicates in the OSD map.
Type:Boolean
Default:true

osd map cache size

Description:The number of OSD maps to keep cached.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:500

osd map cache bl size

Description:The size of the in-memory OSD map cache in OSD daemons.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:50

osd map cache bl inc size

Description:The size of the in-memory OSD map cache incrementals in OSD daemons.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:100

osd map message max

Description:The maximum map entries allowed per MOSDMap message.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:100

Recovery

When the cluster starts or when a Ceph OSD Daemon crashes and restarts, the OSD begins peering with other Ceph OSD Daemons before writes can occur. See Monitoring OSDs and PGs for details.

If a Ceph OSD Daemon crashes and comes back online, usually it will be out of sync with other Ceph OSD Daemons containing more recent versions of objects in the placement groups. When this happens, the Ceph OSD Daemon goes into recovery mode and seeks to get the latest copy of the data and bring its map back up to date. Depending upon how long the Ceph OSD Daemon was down, the OSD’s objects and placement groups may be significantly out of date. Also, if a failure domain went down (e.g., a rack), more than one Ceph OSD Daemon may come back online at the same time. This can make the recovery process time consuming and resource intensive.

To maintain operational performance, Ceph performs recovery with limitations on the number recovery requests, threads and object chunk sizes which allows Ceph perform well in a degraded state.

osd recovery delay start

Description:After peering completes, Ceph will delay for the specified number of seconds before starting to recover objects.
Type:Float
Default:0

osd recovery max active

Description:The number of active recovery requests per OSD at one time. More requests will accelerate recovery, but the requests places an increased load on the cluster.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:15

osd recovery max chunk

Description:The maximum size of a recovered chunk of data to push.
Type:64-bit Integer Unsigned
Default:8 << 20

osd recovery threads

Description:The number of threads for recovering data.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:1

osd recovery thread timeout

Description:The maximum time in seconds before timing out a recovery thread.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:30

osd recover clone overlap

Description:Preserves clone overlap during recovery. Should always be set to true.
Type:Boolean
Default:true

Miscellaneous

osd snap trim thread timeout

Description:The maximum time in seconds before timing out a snap trim thread.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:60*60*1

osd backlog thread timeout

Description:The maximum time in seconds before timing out a backlog thread.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:60*60*1

osd default notify timeout

Description:The OSD default notification timeout (in seconds).
Type:32-bit Integer Unsigned
Default:30

osd check for log corruption

Description:Check log files for corruption. Can be computationally expensive.
Type:Boolean
Default:false

osd remove thread timeout

Description:The maximum time in seconds before timing out a remove OSD thread.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:60*60

osd command thread timeout

Description:The maximum time in seconds before timing out a command thread.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:10*60

osd command max records

Description:Limits the number of lost objects to return.
Type:32-bit Integer
Default:256

osd auto upgrade tmap

Description:Uses tmap for omap on old objects.
Type:Boolean
Default:true

osd tmapput sets users tmap

Description:Uses tmap for debugging only.
Type:Boolean
Default:false

osd preserve trimmed log

Description:Preserves trimmed log files, but uses more disk space.
Type:Boolean
Default:false