Admin Guide

Once you have your Ceph Object Storage service up and running, you may administer the service with user management, access controls, quotas and usage tracking among other features.

User Management

Ceph Object Storage user management refers to users of the Ceph Object Storage service (i.e., not the Ceph Object Gateway as a user of the Ceph Storage Cluster). You must create a user, access key and secret to enable end users to interact with Ceph Object Gateway services.

There are two user types:

  • User: The term ‘user’ reflects a user of the S3 interface.

  • Subuser: The term ‘subuser’ reflects a user of the Swift interface. A subuser is associated to a user .

You can create, modify, view, suspend and remove users and subusers. In addition to user and subuser IDs, you may add a display name and an email address for a user. You can specify a key and secret, or generate a key and secret automatically. When generating or specifying keys, note that user IDs correspond to an S3 key type and subuser IDs correspond to a swift key type. Swift keys also have access levels of read, write, readwrite and full.

Create a User

To create a user (S3 interface), execute the following:

radosgw-admin user create --uid={username} --display-name="{display-name}" [--email={email}]

For example:

radosgw-admin user create --uid=johndoe --display-name="John Doe" --email=john@example.com
{ "user_id": "johndoe",
  "display_name": "John Doe",
  "email": "john@example.com",
  "suspended": 0,
  "max_buckets": 1000,
  "subusers": [],
  "keys": [
        { "user": "johndoe",
          "access_key": "11BS02LGFB6AL6H1ADMW",
          "secret_key": "vzCEkuryfn060dfee4fgQPqFrncKEIkh3ZcdOANY"}],
  "swift_keys": [],
  "caps": [],
  "op_mask": "read, write, delete",
  "default_placement": "",
  "placement_tags": [],
  "bucket_quota": { "enabled": false,
      "max_size_kb": -1,
      "max_objects": -1},
  "user_quota": { "enabled": false,
      "max_size_kb": -1,
      "max_objects": -1},
  "temp_url_keys": []}

Creating a user also creates an access_key and secret_key entry for use with any S3 API-compatible client.

Important

Check the key output. Sometimes radosgw-admin generates a JSON escape (\) character, and some clients do not know how to handle JSON escape characters. Remedies include removing the JSON escape character (\), encapsulating the string in quotes, regenerating the key and ensuring that it does not have a JSON escape character or specify the key and secret manually.

Create a Subuser

To create a subuser (Swift interface) for the user, you must specify the user ID (--uid={username}), a subuser ID and the access level for the subuser.

radosgw-admin subuser create --uid={uid} --subuser={uid} --access=[ read | write | readwrite | full ]

For example:

radosgw-admin subuser create --uid=johndoe --subuser=johndoe:swift --access=full

Note

full is not readwrite, as it also includes the access control policy.

{ "user_id": "johndoe",
  "display_name": "John Doe",
  "email": "john@example.com",
  "suspended": 0,
  "max_buckets": 1000,
  "subusers": [
        { "id": "johndoe:swift",
          "permissions": "full-control"}],
  "keys": [
        { "user": "johndoe",
          "access_key": "11BS02LGFB6AL6H1ADMW",
          "secret_key": "vzCEkuryfn060dfee4fgQPqFrncKEIkh3ZcdOANY"}],
  "swift_keys": [],
  "caps": [],
  "op_mask": "read, write, delete",
  "default_placement": "",
  "placement_tags": [],
  "bucket_quota": { "enabled": false,
      "max_size_kb": -1,
      "max_objects": -1},
  "user_quota": { "enabled": false,
      "max_size_kb": -1,
      "max_objects": -1},
  "temp_url_keys": []}

Get User Info

To get information about a user, you must specify user info and the user ID (--uid={username}) .

radosgw-admin user info --uid=johndoe

Modify User Info

To modify information about a user, you must specify the user ID (--uid={username}) and the attributes you want to modify. Typical modifications are to keys and secrets, email addresses, display names and access levels. For example:

radosgw-admin user modify --uid=johndoe --display-name="John E. Doe"

To modify subuser values, specify subuser modify, user ID and the subuser ID. For example:

radosgw-admin subuser modify --uid=johndoe --subuser=johndoe:swift --access=full

User Enable/Suspend

When you create a user, the user is enabled by default. However, you may suspend user privileges and re-enable them at a later time. To suspend a user, specify user suspend and the user ID.

radosgw-admin user suspend --uid=johndoe

To re-enable a suspended user, specify user enable and the user ID.

radosgw-admin user enable --uid=johndoe

Note

Disabling the user disables the subuser.

Remove a User

When you remove a user, the user and subuser are removed from the system. However, you may remove just the subuser if you wish. To remove a user (and subuser), specify user rm and the user ID.

radosgw-admin user rm --uid=johndoe

To remove the subuser only, specify subuser rm and the subuser ID.

radosgw-admin subuser rm --subuser=johndoe:swift

Options include:

  • Purge Data: The --purge-data option purges all data associated to the UID.

  • Purge Keys: The --purge-keys option purges all keys associated to the UID.

Remove a Subuser

When you remove a sub user, you are removing access to the Swift interface. The user will remain in the system. To remove the subuser, specify subuser rm and the subuser ID.

radosgw-admin subuser rm --subuser=johndoe:swift

Options include:

  • Purge Keys: The --purge-keys option purges all keys associated to the UID.

Add / Remove a Key

Both users and subusers require the key to access the S3 or Swift interface. To use S3, the user needs a key pair which is composed of an access key and a secret key. On the other hand, to use Swift, the user typically needs a secret key (password), and use it together with the associated user ID. You may create a key and either specify or generate the access key and/or secret key. You may also remove a key. Options include:

  • --key-type=<type> specifies the key type. The options are: s3, swift

  • --access-key=<key> manually specifies an S3 access key.

  • --secret-key=<key> manually specifies a S3 secret key or a Swift secret key.

  • --gen-access-key automatically generates a random S3 access key.

  • --gen-secret automatically generates a random S3 secret key or a random Swift secret key.

An example how to add a specified S3 key pair for a user.

radosgw-admin key create --uid=foo --key-type=s3 --access-key fooAccessKey --secret-key fooSecretKey
{ "user_id": "foo",
  "rados_uid": 0,
  "display_name": "foo",
  "email": "foo@example.com",
  "suspended": 0,
  "keys": [
    { "user": "foo",
      "access_key": "fooAccessKey",
      "secret_key": "fooSecretKey"}],
}

Note that you may create multiple S3 key pairs for a user.

To attach a specified swift secret key for a subuser.

radosgw-admin key create --subuser=foo:bar --key-type=swift --secret-key barSecret
{ "user_id": "foo",
  "rados_uid": 0,
  "display_name": "foo",
  "email": "foo@example.com",
  "suspended": 0,
  "subusers": [
     { "id": "foo:bar",
       "permissions": "full-control"}],
  "swift_keys": [
    { "user": "foo:bar",
      "secret_key": "asfghjghghmgm"}]}

Note that a subuser can have only one swift secret key.

Subusers can also be used with S3 APIs if the subuser is associated with a S3 key pair.

radosgw-admin key create --subuser=foo:bar --key-type=s3 --access-key barAccessKey --secret-key barSecretKey
{ "user_id": "foo",
  "rados_uid": 0,
  "display_name": "foo",
  "email": "foo@example.com",
  "suspended": 0,
  "subusers": [
     { "id": "foo:bar",
       "permissions": "full-control"}],
  "keys": [
    { "user": "foo:bar",
      "access_key": "barAccessKey",
      "secret_key": "barSecretKey"}],
}

To remove a S3 key pair, specify the access key.

radosgw-admin key rm --uid=foo --key-type=s3 --access-key=fooAccessKey

To remove the swift secret key.

radosgw-admin key rm --subuser=foo:bar --key-type=swift

Add / Remove Admin Capabilities

The Ceph Storage Cluster provides an administrative API that enables users to execute administrative functions via the REST API. By default, users do NOT have access to this API. To enable a user to exercise administrative functionality, provide the user with administrative capabilities.

To add administrative capabilities to a user, execute the following:

radosgw-admin caps add --uid={uid} --caps={caps}

You can add read, write or all capabilities to users, buckets, metadata and usage (utilization). For example:

--caps="[users|buckets|metadata|usage|zone|amz-cache|info|bilog|mdlog|datalog|user-policy|oidc-provider|roles|ratelimit]=[*|read|write|read, write]"

For example:

radosgw-admin caps add --uid=johndoe --caps="users=*;buckets=*"

To remove administrative capabilities from a user, execute the following:

radosgw-admin caps rm --uid=johndoe --caps={caps}

Quota Management

The Ceph Object Gateway enables you to set quotas on users and buckets owned by users. Quotas include the maximum number of objects in a bucket and the maximum storage size a bucket can hold.

  • Bucket: The --bucket option allows you to specify a quota for buckets the user owns.

  • Maximum Objects: The --max-objects setting allows you to specify the maximum number of objects. A negative value disables this setting.

  • Maximum Size: The --max-size option allows you to specify a quota size in B/K/M/G/T, where B is the default. A negative value disables this setting.

  • Quota Scope: The --quota-scope option sets the scope for the quota. The options are bucket and user. Bucket quotas apply to buckets a user owns. User quotas apply to a user.

Set User Quota

Before you enable a quota, you must first set the quota parameters. For example:

radosgw-admin quota set --quota-scope=user --uid=<uid> [--max-objects=<num objects>] [--max-size=<max size>]

For example:

radosgw-admin quota set --quota-scope=user --uid=johndoe --max-objects=1024 --max-size=1024B

A negative value for num objects and / or max size means that the specific quota attribute check is disabled.

Enable/Disable User Quota

Once you set a user quota, you may enable it. For example:

radosgw-admin quota enable --quota-scope=user --uid=<uid>

You may disable an enabled user quota. For example:

radosgw-admin quota disable --quota-scope=user --uid=<uid>

Set Bucket Quota

Bucket quotas apply to the buckets owned by the specified uid. They are independent of the user.

radosgw-admin quota set --uid=<uid> --quota-scope=bucket [--max-objects=<num objects>] [--max-size=<max size]

A negative value for num objects and / or max size means that the specific quota attribute check is disabled.

Enable/Disable Bucket Quota

Once you set a bucket quota, you may enable it. For example:

radosgw-admin quota enable --quota-scope=bucket --uid=<uid>

You may disable an enabled bucket quota. For example:

radosgw-admin quota disable --quota-scope=bucket --uid=<uid>

Get Quota Settings

You may access each user’s quota settings via the user information API. To read user quota setting information with the CLI interface, execute the following:

radosgw-admin user info --uid=<uid>

Update Quota Stats

Quota stats get updated asynchronously. You can update quota statistics for all users and all buckets manually to retrieve the latest quota stats.

radosgw-admin user stats --uid=<uid> --sync-stats

Get User Usage Stats

To see how much of the quota a user has consumed, execute the following:

radosgw-admin user stats --uid=<uid>

Note

You should execute radosgw-admin user stats with the --sync-stats option to receive the latest data.

Default Quotas

You can set default quotas in the config. These defaults are used when creating a new user and have no effect on existing users. If the relevant default quota is set in config, then that quota is set on the new user, and that quota is enabled. See rgw bucket default quota max objects, rgw bucket default quota max size, rgw user default quota max objects, and rgw user default quota max size in Ceph Object Gateway Config Reference

Quota Cache

Quota statistics are cached on each RGW instance. If there are multiple instances, then the cache can keep quotas from being perfectly enforced, as each instance will have a different view of quotas. The options that control this are rgw bucket quota ttl, rgw user quota bucket sync interval and rgw user quota sync interval. The higher these values are, the more efficient quota operations are, but the more out-of-sync multiple instances will be. The lower these values are, the closer to perfect enforcement multiple instances will achieve. If all three are 0, then quota caching is effectively disabled, and multiple instances will have perfect quota enforcement. See Ceph Object Gateway Config Reference

Reading / Writing Global Quotas

You can read and write global quota settings in the period configuration. To view the global quota settings:

radosgw-admin global quota get

The global quota settings can be manipulated with the global quota counterparts of the quota set, quota enable, and quota disable commands.

radosgw-admin global quota set --quota-scope bucket --max-objects 1024
radosgw-admin global quota enable --quota-scope bucket

Note

In a multisite configuration, where there is a realm and period present, changes to the global quotas must be committed using period update --commit. If there is no period present, the rados gateway(s) must be restarted for the changes to take effect.

Rate Limit Management

The Ceph Object Gateway enables you to set rate limits on users and buckets. Rate limit includes the maximum number of read ops and write ops per minute and how many bytes per minute could be written or read per user or per bucket. Requests that are using GET or HEAD method in the REST request are considered as “read requests”, otherwise they are considered as “write requests”. Every Object Gateway tracks per user and bucket metrics separately, these metrics are not shared with other gateways. That means that the desired limits configured should be divide by the number of active Object Gateways. For example, if userA should be limited by 10 ops per minute and there are 2 Object Gateways in the cluster, the limit over userA should be 5 (10 ops per minute / 2 RGWs). if the requests are not balanced between RGWs, the rate limit may be underutilized. For example, if the ops limit is 5 and there are 2 RGWs, but the Load Balancer send load only to one of those RGWs, The effective limit would be 5 ops, because this limit is enforced per RGW. If there is a limit reached for bucket not for user or vice versa the request would be cancelled as well. The bandwidth counting happens after the request is being accepted, as a result, even if in the middle of the request the bucket/user has reached its bandwidth limit this request will proceed. The RGW will keep a “debt” of used bytes more than the configured value and will prevent this user/bucket from sending more requests until there “debt” is being paid. The “debt” maximum size is twice the max-read/write-bytes per minute. If userA has 1 byte read limit per minute and this user tries to GET 1 GB object, the user will be able to do it. After userA completes this 1GB operation, the RGW will block the user request for up to 2 minutes until userA will be able to send GET request again.

  • Bucket: The --bucket option allows you to specify a rate limit for a bucket.

  • User: The --uid option allows you to specify a rate limit for a user.

  • Maximum Read Ops: The --max-read-ops setting allows you to specify the maximum number of read ops per minute per RGW. A 0 value disables this setting (which means unlimited access).

  • Maximum Read Bytes: The --max-read-bytes setting allows you to specify the maximum number of read bytes per minute per RGW. A 0 value disables this setting (which means unlimited access).

  • Maximum Write Ops: The --max-write-ops setting allows you to specify the maximum number of write ops per minute per RGW. A 0 value disables this setting (which means unlimited access).

  • Maximum Write Bytes: The --max-write-bytes setting allows you to specify the maximum number of write bytes per minute per RGW. A 0 value disables this setting (which means unlimited access).

  • Rate Limit Scope: The --ratelimit-scope option sets the scope for the rate limit. The options are bucket , user and anonymous. Bucket rate limit apply to buckets. The user rate limit applies to a user. Anonymous applies to an unauthenticated user. Anonymous scope is only available for global rate limit.

Set User Rate Limit

Before you enable a rate limit, you must first set the rate limit parameters. For example:

      radosgw-admin ratelimit set --ratelimit-scope=user --uid=<uid> <[--max-read-ops=<num ops>] [--max-read-bytes=<num bytes>]
[--max-write-ops=<num ops>] [--max-write-bytes=<num bytes>]>

For example:

radosgw-admin ratelimit set --ratelimit-scope=user --uid=johndoe --max-read-ops=1024 --max-write-bytes=10240

A 0 value for num ops and / or num bytes means that the specific rate limit attribute check is disabled.

Get User Rate Limit

Get the current configured rate limit parameters For example:

radosgw-admin ratelimit get --ratelimit-scope=user --uid=<uid>

For example:

radosgw-admin ratelimit get --ratelimit-scope=user --uid=johndoe

A 0 value for num ops and / or num bytes means that the specific rate limit attribute check is disabled.

Enable/Disable User Rate Limit

Once you set a user rate limit, you may enable it. For example:

radosgw-admin ratelimit enable --ratelimit-scope=user --uid=<uid>

You may disable an enabled user rate limit. For example:

radosgw-admin ratelimit disable --ratelimit-scope=user --uid=johndoe

Set Bucket Rate Limit

Before you enable a rate limit, you must first set the rate limit parameters. For example:

      radosgw-admin ratelimit set --ratelimit-scope=bucket --bucket=<bucket> <[--max-read-ops=<num ops>] [--max-read-bytes=<num bytes>]
[--max-write-ops=<num ops>] [--max-write-bytes=<num bytes>]>

For example:

radosgw-admin ratelimit set --ratelimit-scope=bucket --bucket=mybucket --max-read-ops=1024 --max-write-bytes=10240

A 0 value for num ops and / or num bytes means that the specific rate limit attribute check is disabled.

Get Bucket Rate Limit

Get the current configured rate limit parameters For example:

radosgw-admin ratelimit set --ratelimit-scope=bucket --bucket=<bucket>

For example:

radosgw-admin ratelimit get --ratelimit-scope=bucket --bucket=mybucket

A 0 value for num ops and / or num bytes means that the specific rate limit attribute check is disabled.

Enable/Disable Bucket Rate Limit

Once you set a bucket rate limit, you may enable it. For example:

radosgw-admin ratelimit enable --ratelimit-scope=bucket --bucket=<bucket>

You may disable an enabled bucket rate limit. For example:

radosgw-admin ratelimit disable --ratelimit-scope=bucket --uid=mybucket

Reading / Writing Global Rate Limit Configuration

You can read and write global rate limit settings in the period configuration. To view the global rate limit settings:

radosgw-admin global rate limit get

The global rate limit settings can be manipulated with the global ratelimit counterparts of the ratelimit set, ratelimit enable, and ratelimit disable commands. Per user and per bucket ratelimit configuration is overriding the global configuration:

radosgw-admin global ratelimit set --ratelimit-scope bucket --max-read-ops=1024
radosgw-admin global ratelimit enable --ratelimit-scope bucket

The global rate limit can configure rate limit scope for all authenticated users:

radosgw-admin global ratelimit set --ratelimit-scope user --max-read-ops=1024
radosgw-admin global ratelimit enable --ratelimit-scope user

The global rate limit can configure rate limit scope for all unauthenticated users:

radosgw-admin global ratelimit set --ratelimit-scope=anonymous --max-read-ops=1024
radosgw-admin global ratelimit enable --ratelimit-scope=anonymous

Note

In a multisite configuration, where there is a realm and period present, changes to the global rate limit must be committed using period update --commit. If there is no period present, the rados gateway(s) must be restarted for the changes to take effect.

Usage

The Ceph Object Gateway logs usage for each user. You can track user usage within date ranges too.

  • Add rgw enable usage log = true in [client.rgw] section of ceph.conf and restart the radosgw service.

Options include:

  • Start Date: The --start-date option allows you to filter usage stats from a particular start date (format: yyyy-mm-dd[HH:MM:SS]).

  • End Date: The --end-date option allows you to filter usage up to a particular date (format: yyyy-mm-dd[HH:MM:SS]).

  • Log Entries: The --show-log-entries option allows you to specify whether or not to include log entries with the usage stats (options: true | false).

Note

You may specify time with minutes and seconds, but it is stored with 1 hour resolution.

Show Usage

To show usage statistics, specify the usage show. To show usage for a particular user, you must specify a user ID. You may also specify a start date, end date, and whether or not to show log entries.:

radosgw-admin usage show --uid=johndoe --start-date=2012-03-01 --end-date=2012-04-01

You may also show a summary of usage information for all users by omitting a user ID.

radosgw-admin usage show --show-log-entries=false

Trim Usage

With heavy use, usage logs can begin to take up storage space. You can trim usage logs for all users and for specific users. You may also specify date ranges for trim operations.

radosgw-admin usage trim --start-date=2010-01-01 --end-date=2010-12-31
radosgw-admin usage trim --uid=johndoe
radosgw-admin usage trim --uid=johndoe --end-date=2013-12-31