Notice

This document is for a development version of Ceph.

CephFS Snapshot Mirroring

CephFS supports asynchronous replication of snapshots to a remote CephFS file system via the cephfs-mirror tool. Snapshots are synchronized by mirroring snapshot data followed by creating a remote snapshot with the same name (for a given directory on the remote file system) as the source snapshot.

Requirements

The primary (local) and secondary (remote) Ceph clusters version should be Pacific or later.

Creating Users

Start by creating a Ceph user (on the primary/local cluster) for the cephfs-mirror daemon. This user requires write capability on the metadata pool to create RADOS objects (index objects) for watch/notify operation and read capability on the data pool(s):

$ ceph auth get-or-create client.mirror mon 'profile cephfs-mirror' mds 'allow r' osd 'allow rw tag cephfs metadata=*, allow r tag cephfs data=*' mgr 'allow r'

Create a Ceph user for each file system peer (on the secondary/remote cluster). This user needs to have full capabilities on the MDS (to take snapshots) and the OSDs:

$ ceph fs authorize <fs_name> client.mirror_remote / rwps

This user will be supplied as part of the peer specification when adding a peer.

Starting Mirror Daemon

The mirror daemon should be spawned using systemctl(1) unit files:

$ systemctl enable cephfs-mirror@mirror
$ systemctl start cephfs-mirror@mirror

cephfs-mirror daemon can be run in foreground using:

$ cephfs-mirror --id mirror --cluster site-a -f

Note

The user specified here is mirror created in the Creating Users section.

Multiple cephfs-mirror daemons may be deployed for concurrent synchronization and high availability. Mirror daemons share the synchronization load using a simple M/N policy, where M is the number of directories and N is the number of cephfs-mirror daemons.

When cephadm is used to manage a Ceph cluster, cephfs-mirror daemons can be deployed using:

$ ceph orch apply cephfs-mirror

To deploy multiple mirror daemons use:

$ ceph orch apply cephfs-mirror --placement=<placement-spec>

E.g., to deploy 3 cephfs-mirror daemons on different hosts, use:

$ ceph orch apply cephfs-mirror --placement="3 host1,host2,host3"

Interface

The Mirroring module (manager plugin) provides interfaces for managing directory snapshot mirroring. These are (mostly) wrappers around monitor commands for managing file system mirroring and is the recommended control interface.

Mirroring Module

The mirroring module is responsible for assigning directories to mirror daemons for synchronization. Multiple mirror daemons can be spawned to achieve concurrency in directory snapshot synchronization. When mirror daemons are spawned (or terminated), the mirroring module discovers the modified set of mirror daemons and rebalances directory assignments across the new set, thus providing high-availability.

Note

Deploying a single mirror daemon is recommended; running multiple daemons is untested.

The mirroring module is disabled by default. To enable the mirroring module:

$ ceph mgr module enable mirroring

The mirroring module provides a family of commands to control mirroring of directory snapshots. To add or remove directories, mirroring needs to be enabled for a given file system. To enable mirroring for a given file system:

$ ceph fs snapshot mirror enable <fs_name>

Note

Mirroring module commands are prefixed with fs snapshot mirror as compared to monitor commands which are prefixed with fs mirror. Be sure to use module commands.

To disable mirroring for a given file system:

$ ceph fs snapshot mirror disable <fs_name>

Once mirroring is enabled, add a peer to which directory snapshots are to be mirrored. Peers are specified by <client>@<cluster> and are assigned a unique-id (UUID) when added. See Creating Users section on how to create Ceph users for mirroring.

To add a peer use:

$ ceph fs snapshot mirror peer_add <fs_name> <remote_cluster_spec> [<remote_fs_name>] [<remote_mon_host>] [<cephx_key>]

<remote_fs_name> is optional, and defaults to <fs_name> (on the remote cluster).

This requires the remote cluster ceph configuration and user keyring to be available in the primary cluster. See Bootstrap Peers section to avoid this. peer_add additionally supports passing the remote cluster monitor address and the user key. However, bootstrapping a peer is the recommended way to add a peer.

Note

Only a single peer is currently supported.

To remove a peer use:

$ ceph fs snapshot mirror peer_remove <fs_name> <peer_uuid>

To list file system mirror peers use:

$ ceph fs snapshot mirror peer_list <fs_name>

To configure a directory for mirroring, use:

$ ceph fs snapshot mirror add <fs_name> <path>

To stop a mirroring directory snapshots use:

$ ceph fs snapshot mirror remove <fs_name> <path>

Only absolute directory paths are allowed. Also, paths are normalized by the mirroring module, therefore, /a/b/../b is equivalent to /a/b. Also note that paths always start from the cephfs file-system root and not from the host system mount point.

e.g.:

$ mkdir -p /d0/d1/d2
$ ceph fs snapshot mirror add cephfs /d0/d1/d2
{}
$ ceph fs snapshot mirror add cephfs /d0/d1/../d1/d2
Error EEXIST: directory /d0/d1/d2 is already tracked

Once a directory is added for mirroring, additional mirroring of subdirectories or ancestor directories is disallowed:

$ ceph fs snapshot mirror add cephfs /d0/d1
Error EINVAL: /d0/d1 is a ancestor of tracked path /d0/d1/d2
$ ceph fs snapshot mirror add cephfs /d0/d1/d2/d3
Error EINVAL: /d0/d1/d2/d3 is a subtree of tracked path /d0/d1/d2

Commands to check directory mapping (to mirror daemons) and directory distribution are detailed in Mirroring Status section.

Bootstrap Peers

Adding a peer (via peer_add) requires the peer cluster configuration and user keyring to be available in the primary cluster (manager host and hosts running the mirror daemon). This can be avoided by bootstrapping and importing a peer token. Peer bootstrap involves creating a bootstrap token on the peer cluster via:

$ ceph fs snapshot mirror peer_bootstrap create <fs_name> <client_entity> <site-name>

e.g.:

$ ceph fs snapshot mirror peer_bootstrap create backup_fs client.mirror_remote site-remote
{"token": "eyJmc2lkIjogIjBkZjE3MjE3LWRmY2QtNDAzMC05MDc5LTM2Nzk4NTVkNDJlZiIsICJmaWxlc3lzdGVtIjogImJhY2t1cF9mcyIsICJ1c2VyIjogImNsaWVudC5taXJyb3JfcGVlcl9ib290c3RyYXAiLCAic2l0ZV9uYW1lIjogInNpdGUtcmVtb3RlIiwgImtleSI6ICJBUUFhcDBCZ0xtRmpOeEFBVnNyZXozai9YYUV0T2UrbUJEZlJDZz09IiwgIm1vbl9ob3N0IjogIlt2MjoxOTIuMTY4LjAuNTo0MDkxOCx2MToxOTIuMTY4LjAuNTo0MDkxOV0ifQ=="}

site-name refers to a user-defined string to identify the remote filesystem. In context of peer_add interface, site-name is the passed in cluster name from remote_cluster_spec.

Import the bootstrap token in the primary cluster via:

$ ceph fs snapshot mirror peer_bootstrap import <fs_name> <token>

e.g.:

$ ceph fs snapshot mirror peer_bootstrap import cephfs eyJmc2lkIjogIjBkZjE3MjE3LWRmY2QtNDAzMC05MDc5LTM2Nzk4NTVkNDJlZiIsICJmaWxlc3lzdGVtIjogImJhY2t1cF9mcyIsICJ1c2VyIjogImNsaWVudC5taXJyb3JfcGVlcl9ib290c3RyYXAiLCAic2l0ZV9uYW1lIjogInNpdGUtcmVtb3RlIiwgImtleSI6ICJBUUFhcDBCZ0xtRmpOeEFBVnNyZXozai9YYUV0T2UrbUJEZlJDZz09IiwgIm1vbl9ob3N0IjogIlt2MjoxOTIuMTY4LjAuNTo0MDkxOCx2MToxOTIuMTY4LjAuNTo0MDkxOV0ifQ==

Mirroring Status

CephFS mirroring module provides mirror daemon status interface to check mirror daemon status:

$ ceph fs snapshot mirror daemon status
[
  {
    "daemon_id": 284167,
    "filesystems": [
      {
        "filesystem_id": 1,
        "name": "a",
        "directory_count": 1,
        "peers": [
          {
            "uuid": "02117353-8cd1-44db-976b-eb20609aa160",
            "remote": {
              "client_name": "client.mirror_remote",
              "cluster_name": "ceph",
              "fs_name": "backup_fs"
            },
            "stats": {
              "failure_count": 1,
              "recovery_count": 0
            }
          }
        ]
      }
    ]
  }
]

An entry per mirror daemon instance is displayed along with information such as configured peers and basic stats. For more detailed stats, use the admin socket interface as detailed below.

CephFS mirror daemons provide admin socket commands for querying mirror status. To check available commands for mirror status use:

$ ceph --admin-daemon /path/to/mirror/daemon/admin/socket help
{
    ....
    ....
    "fs mirror status cephfs@360": "get filesystem mirror status",
    ....
    ....
}

Commands prefixed with`fs mirror status` provide mirror status for mirror enabled file systems. Note that cephfs@360 is of format filesystem-name@filesystem-id. This format is required since mirror daemons get asynchronously notified regarding file system mirror status (A file system can be deleted and recreated with the same name).

This command currently provides minimal information regarding mirror status:

$ ceph --admin-daemon /var/run/ceph/cephfs-mirror.asok fs mirror status cephfs@360
{
  "rados_inst": "192.168.0.5:0/1476644347",
  "peers": {
      "a2dc7784-e7a1-4723-b103-03ee8d8768f8": {
          "remote": {
              "client_name": "client.mirror_remote",
              "cluster_name": "site-a",
              "fs_name": "backup_fs"
          }
      }
  },
  "snap_dirs": {
      "dir_count": 1
  }
}

The Peers section in the command output above shows the peer information including the unique peer-id (UUID) and specification. The peer-id is required when removing an existing peer as mentioned in the Mirror Module and Interface section.

Commands prefixed with fs mirror peer status provide peer synchronization status. This command is of format filesystem-name@filesystem-id peer-uuid:

$ ceph --admin-daemon /var/run/ceph/cephfs-mirror.asok fs mirror peer status cephfs@360 a2dc7784-e7a1-4723-b103-03ee8d8768f8
{
  "/d0": {
      "state": "idle",
      "last_synced_snap": {
          "id": 120,
          "name": "snap1",
          "sync_duration": 0.079997898999999997,
          "sync_time_stamp": "274900.558797s"
      },
      "snaps_synced": 2,
      "snaps_deleted": 0,
      "snaps_renamed": 0
  }
}

Synchronization stats including snaps_synced, snaps_deleted and snaps_renamed are reset on daemon restart and/or when a directory is reassigned to another mirror daemon (when multiple mirror daemons are deployed).

A directory can be in one of the following states:

- `idle`: The directory is currently not being synchronized
- `syncing`: The directory is currently being synchronized
- `failed`: The directory has hit upper limit of consecutive failures

When a directory experiences a configured number of consecutive synchronization failures, the mirror daemon marks it as failed. Synchronization for these directories is retried. By default, the number of consecutive failures before a directory is marked as failed is controlled by cephfs_mirror_max_consecutive_failures_per_directory configuration option (default: 10) and the retry interval for failed directories is controlled via cephfs_mirror_retry_failed_directories_interval configuration option (default: 60s).

E.g., adding a regular file for synchronization would result in failed status:

$ ceph fs snapshot mirror add cephfs /f0
$ ceph --admin-daemon /var/run/ceph/cephfs-mirror.asok fs mirror peer status cephfs@360 a2dc7784-e7a1-4723-b103-03ee8d8768f8
{
  "/d0": {
      "state": "idle",
      "last_synced_snap": {
          "id": 120,
          "name": "snap1",
          "sync_duration": 0.079997898999999997,
          "sync_time_stamp": "274900.558797s"
      },
      "snaps_synced": 2,
      "snaps_deleted": 0,
      "snaps_renamed": 0
  },
  "/f0": {
      "state": "failed",
      "snaps_synced": 0,
      "snaps_deleted": 0,
      "snaps_renamed": 0
  }
}

This allows a user to add a non-existent directory for synchronization. The mirror daemon will mark such a directory as failed and retry (less frequently). When the directory is created, the mirror daemon will clear the failed state upon successful synchronization.

When mirroring is disabled, the respective fs mirror status command for the file system will not show up in command help.

Configuration Options

cephfs_mirror_max_concurrent_directory_syncs

maximum number of directory snapshots that can be synchronized concurrently by cephfs-mirror daemon. Controls the number of synchronization threads.

type

uint

default

3

min

1

cephfs_mirror_action_update_interval

Interval in seconds to process pending mirror update actions.

type

secs

default

2

min

1

cephfs_mirror_restart_mirror_on_blocklist_interval

Interval in seconds to restart blocklisted mirror instances. Setting to zero (0) disables restarting blocklisted instances.

type

secs

default

30

min

0

cephfs_mirror_max_snapshot_sync_per_cycle

maximum number of snapshots to mirror when a directory is picked up for mirroring by worker threads.

type

uint

default

3

min

1

cephfs_mirror_directory_scan_interval

interval in seconds to scan configured directories for snapshot mirroring.

type

uint

default

10

min

1

cephfs_mirror_max_consecutive_failures_per_directory

number of consecutive snapshot synchronization failures to mark a directory as “failed”. failed directories are retried for synchronization less frequently.

type

uint

default

10

min

0

cephfs_mirror_retry_failed_directories_interval

interval in seconds to retry synchronization for failed directories.

type

uint

default

60

min

1

cephfs_mirror_restart_mirror_on_failure_interval

Interval in seconds to restart failed mirror instances. Setting to zero (0) disables restarting failed mirror instances.

type

secs

default

20

min

0

cephfs_mirror_mount_timeout

Timeout in seconds for mounting primary or secondary (remote) ceph file system by the cephfs-mirror daemon. Setting this to a higher value could result in the mirror daemon getting stalled when mounting a file system if the cluster is not reachable. This option is used to override the usual client_mount_timeout.

type

secs

default

10

min

0

Re-adding Peers

When re-adding (reassigning) a peer to a file system in another cluster, ensure that all mirror daemons have stopped synchronization to the peer. This can be checked via fs mirror status admin socket command (the Peer UUID should not show up in the command output). Also, it is recommended to purge synchronized directories from the peer before re-adding it to another file system (especially those directories which might exist in the new primary file system). This is not required if re-adding a peer to the same primary file system it was earlier synchronized from.