This document is for a development version of Ceph.

CephFS Dynamic Metadata Management

Metadata operations usually take up more than 50 percent of all file system operations. Also the metadata scales in a more complex fashion when compared to scaling storage (which in turn scales I/O throughput linearly). This is due to the hierarchical and interdependent nature of the file system metadata. So in CephFS, the metadata workload is decoupled from data workload so as to avoid placing unnecessary strain on the RADOS cluster. The metadata is hence handled by a cluster of Metadata Servers (MDSs). CephFS distributes metadata across MDSs via Dynamic Subtree Partitioning.

Dynamic Subtree Partitioning

In traditional subtree partitioning, subtrees of the file system hierarchy are assigned to individual MDSs. This metadata distribution strategy provides good hierarchical locality, linear growth of cache and horizontal scaling across MDSs and a fairly good distribution of metadata across MDSs.


The problem with traditional subtree partitioning is that the workload growth by depth (across a single MDS) leads to a hotspot of activity. This results in lack of vertical scaling and wastage of non-busy resources/MDSs.

This led to the adoption of a more dynamic way of handling metadata: Dynamic Subtree Partitioning, where load intensive portions of the directory hierarchy from busy MDSs are migrated to non busy MDSs.

This strategy ensures that activity hotspots are relieved as they appear and so leads to vertical scaling of the metadata workload in addition to horizontal scaling.

Export Process During Subtree Migration

Once the exporter verifies that the subtree is permissible to be exported (Non degraded cluster, non-frozen subtree root), the subtree root directory is temporarily auth pinned, the subtree freeze is initiated, and the exporter is committed to the subtree migration, barring an intervening failure of the importer or itself.

The MExportDiscover message is exchanged to ensure that the inode for the base directory being exported is open on the destination node. It is auth pinned by the importer to prevent it from being trimmed. This occurs before the exporter completes the freeze of the subtree to ensure that the importer is able to replicate the necessary metadata. When the exporter receives the MDiscoverAck, it allows the freeze to proceed by removing its temporary auth pin.

A warning stage occurs only if the base subtree directory is open by nodes other than the importer and exporter. If it is not, then this implies that no metadata within or nested beneath the subtree is replicated by any node other than the importer and exporter. If it is, then an MExportWarning message informs any bystanders that the authority for the region is temporarily ambiguous, and lists both the exporter and importer as authoritative MDS nodes. In particular, bystanders who are trimming items from their cache must send MCacheExpire messages to both the old and new authorities. This is necessary to ensure that the surviving authority reliably receives all expirations even if the importer or exporter fails. While the subtree is frozen (on both the importer and exporter), expirations will not be immediately processed; instead, they will be queued until the region is unfrozen and it can be determined that the node is or is not authoritative.

The exporter then packages an MExport message containing all metadata of the subtree and flags the objects as non-authoritative. The MExport message sends the actual subtree metadata to the importer. Upon receipt, the importer inserts the data into its cache, marks all objects as authoritative, and logs a copy of all metadata in an EImportStart journal message. Once that has safely flushed, it replies with an MExportAck. The exporter can now log an EExport journal entry, which ultimately specifies that the export was a success. In the presence of failures, it is the existence of the EExport entry only that disambiguates authority during recovery.

Once logged, the exporter will send an MExportNotify to any bystanders, informing them that the authority is no longer ambiguous and cache expirations should be sent only to the new authority (the importer). Once these are acknowledged back to the exporter, implicitly flushing the bystander to exporter message streams of any stray expiration notices, the exporter unfreezes the subtree, cleans up its migration-related state, and sends a final MExportFinish to the importer. Upon receipt, the importer logs an EImportFinish(true) (noting locally that the export was indeed a success), unfreezes its subtree, processes any queued cache expirations, and cleans up its state.

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