Notice

This document is for a development version of Ceph.

Basic Block Device Commands

The rbd command enables you to create, list, introspect and remove block device images. You can also use it to clone images, create snapshots, rollback an image to a snapshot, view a snapshot, etc. For details on using the rbd command, see RBD – Manage RADOS Block Device (RBD) Images for details.

Important

To use Ceph Block Device commands, you must have access to a running Ceph cluster.

Create a Block Device Pool

  1. Use the ceph tool to create a pool.

  2. Use the rbd tool to initialize the pool for use by RBD:

    rbd pool init <pool-name>
    

    Note

    The rbd tool assumes a default pool name of ‘rbd’ if no pool name is specified in the command.

Create a Block Device User

Unless otherwise specified, the rbd command uses the Ceph user ID admin to access the Ceph cluster. The admin Ceph user ID allows full administrative access to the cluster. We recommend that you acess the Ceph cluster with a Ceph user ID that has fewer permissions than the admin Ceph user ID does. We call this non-admin Ceph user ID a “block device user” or “Ceph user”.

To create a Ceph user, use the ceph auth get-or-create command to specify the Ceph user ID name, monitor caps (capabilities), and OSD caps (capabilities):

ceph auth get-or-create client.{ID} mon 'profile rbd' osd 'profile {profile name} [pool={pool-name}][, profile ...]' mgr 'profile rbd [pool={pool-name}]'

For example: to create a Ceph user ID named qemu that has read-write access to the pool vms and read-only access to the pool images, run the following command:

ceph auth get-or-create client.qemu mon 'profile rbd' osd 'profile rbd pool=vms, profile rbd-read-only pool=images' mgr 'profile rbd pool=images'

The output from the ceph auth get-or-create command is the keyring for the specified Ceph user ID, which can be written to /etc/ceph/ceph.client.{ID}.keyring.

Note

Specify the Ceph user ID by providing the --id {id} argument when using the ``rbd command. This argument is optional.

Creating a Block Device Image

Before you can add a block device to a node, you must create an image for it in the Ceph Storage Cluster. To create a block device image, run a command of this form:

rbd create --size {megabytes} {pool-name}/{image-name}

For example, to create a 1GB image named bar that stores information in a pool named swimmingpool, run this command:

rbd create --size 1024 swimmingpool/bar

If you don’t specify a pool when you create an image, then the image will be stored in the default pool rbd. For example, if you ran this command, you would create a 1GB image named foo that is stored in the default pool rbd:

rbd create --size 1024 foo

Note

You must create a pool before you can specify it as a source. See Storage Pools for details.

Listing Block Device Images

To list block devices in the rbd pool, run the following command:

rbd ls

Note

rbd is the default pool name, and rbd ls lists the commands in the default pool.

To list block devices in a particular pool, run the following command, but replace {poolname} with the name of the pool:

rbd ls {poolname}

For example:

rbd ls swimmingpool

To list “deferred delete” block devices in the rbd pool, run the following command:

rbd trash ls

To list “deferred delete” block devices in a particular pool, run the following command, but replace {poolname} with the name of the pool:

rbd trash ls {poolname}

For example:

rbd trash ls swimmingpool

Retrieving Image Information

To retrieve information from a particular image, run the following command, but replace {image-name} with the name for the image:

rbd info {image-name}

For example:

rbd info foo

To retrieve information from an image within a pool, run the following command, but replace {image-name} with the name of the image and replace {pool-name} with the name of the pool:

rbd info {pool-name}/{image-name}

For example:

rbd info swimmingpool/bar

Note

Other naming conventions are possible, and might conflict with the naming convention described here. For example, userid/<uuid> is a possible name for an RBD image, and such a name might (at the least) be confusing.

Resizing a Block Device Image

Ceph Block Device images are thin provisioned. They don’t actually use any physical storage until you begin saving data to them. However, they do have a maximum capacity that you set with the --size option. If you want to increase (or decrease) the maximum size of a Ceph Block Device image, run one of the following commands:

Increasing the Size of a Block Device Image

rbd resize --size 2048 foo

Decreasing the Size of a Block Device Image

rbd resize --size 2048 foo --allow-shrink

Removing a Block Device Image

To remove a block device, run the following command, but replace {image-name} with the name of the image you want to remove:

rbd rm {image-name}

For example:

rbd rm foo

Removing a Block Device from a Pool

To remove a block device from a pool, run the following command but replace {image-name} with the name of the image to be removed, and replace {pool-name} with the name of the pool from which the image is to be removed:

rbd rm {pool-name}/{image-name}

For example:

rbd rm swimmingpool/bar

“Defer Deleting” a Block Device from a Pool

To defer delete a block device from a pool (which entails moving it to the “trash” and deleting it later), run the following command but replace {image-name} with the name of the image to be moved to the trash and replace {pool-name} with the name of the pool:

rbd trash mv {pool-name}/{image-name}

For example:

rbd trash mv swimmingpool/bar

Removing a Deferred Block Device from a Pool

To remove a deferred block device from a pool, run the following command but replace {image-} with the ID of the image to be removed, and replace {pool-name} with the name of the pool from which the image is to be removed:

rbd trash rm {pool-name}/{image-}

For example:

rbd trash rm swimmingpool/2bf4474b0dc51

Note

  • You can move an image to the trash even if it has snapshot(s) or is actively in use by clones. However, you cannot remove it from the trash under those conditions.

  • You can use --expires-at to set the deferment time (default is now). If the deferment time has not yet arrived, you cannot remove the image unless you use --force.

Restoring a Block Device Image

To restore a deferred delete block device in the rbd pool, run the following command but replace {image-id} with the ID of the image:

rbd trash restore {image-id}

For example:

rbd trash restore 2bf4474b0dc51

Restoring a Block Device Image in a Specific Pool

To restore a deferred delete block device in a particular pool, run the following command but replace {image-id} with the ID of the image and replace {pool-name} with the name of the pool:

rbd trash restore {pool-name}/{image-id}

For example:

rbd trash restore swimmingpool/2bf4474b0dc51

Renaming an Image While Restoring It

You can also use --image to rename the image while restoring it.

For example:

rbd trash restore swimmingpool/2bf4474b0dc51 --image new-name