# Application best practices for distributed file systems¶

CephFS is POSIX compatible, and therefore should work with any existing applications that expect a POSIX file system. However, because it is a network file system (unlike e.g. XFS) and it is highly consistent (unlike e.g. NFS), there are some consequences that application authors may benefit from knowing about.

The following sections describe some areas where distributed file systems may have noticeably different performance behaviours compared with local file systems.

## ls -l¶

When you run “ls -l”, the ls program is first doing a directory listing, and then calling stat on every file in the directory.

This is usually far in excess of what an application really needs, and it can be slow for large directories. If you don’t really need all this metadata for each file, then use a plain ls.

## ls/stat on files being extended¶

If another client is currently extending files in the listed directory, then an ls -l may take an exceptionally long time to complete, as the lister must wait for the writer to flush data in order to do a valid read of the every file’s size. So unless you really need to know the exact size of every file in the directory, just don’t do it!

This would also apply to any application code that was directly issuing stat system calls on files being appended from another node.

## Very large directories¶

Do you really need that 10,000,000 file directory? While directory fragmentation enables CephFS to handle it, it is always going to be less efficient than splitting your files into more modest-sized directories.

Even standard userspace tools can become quite slow when operating on very large directories. For example, the default behaviour of ls is to give an alphabetically ordered result, but readdir system calls do not give an ordered result (this is true in general, not just with CephFS). So when you ls on a million file directory, it is loading a list of a million names into memory, sorting the list, then writing it out to the display.

## Working set size¶

If your workload has more files than fit in your cache (configured using mds_cache_memory_limit settings), then make sure you test it appropriately: don’t test your system with a small number of files and then expect equivalent performance when you move to a much larger number of files.