Notice

This document is for a development version of Ceph.

Librados (Python)

The rados module is a thin Python wrapper for librados.

Installation

To install Python libraries for Ceph, see Getting librados for Python.

Getting Started

You can create your own Ceph client using Python. The following tutorial will show you how to import the Ceph Python module, connect to a Ceph cluster, and perform object operations as a client.admin user.

Note

To use the Ceph Python bindings, you must have access to a running Ceph cluster. To set one up quickly, see Getting Started.

First, create a Python source file for your Ceph client. ::
linenos

sudo vim client.py

Import the Module

To use the rados module, import it into your source file.

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     import rados

Configure a Cluster Handle

Before connecting to the Ceph Storage Cluster, create a cluster handle. By default, the cluster handle assumes a cluster named ceph (i.e., the default for deployment tools, and our Getting Started guides too), and a client.admin user name. You may change these defaults to suit your needs.

To connect to the Ceph Storage Cluster, your application needs to know where to find the Ceph Monitor. Provide this information to your application by specifying the path to your Ceph configuration file, which contains the location of the initial Ceph monitors.

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     import rados, sys

     #Create Handle Examples.
     cluster = rados.Rados(conffile='ceph.conf')
     cluster = rados.Rados(conffile=sys.argv[1])
     cluster = rados.Rados(conffile = 'ceph.conf', conf = dict (keyring = '/path/to/keyring'))

Ensure that the conffile argument provides the path and file name of your Ceph configuration file. You may use the sys module to avoid hard-coding the Ceph configuration path and file name.

Your Python client also requires a client keyring. For this example, we use the client.admin key by default. If you would like to specify the keyring when creating the cluster handle, you may use the conf argument. Alternatively, you may specify the keyring path in your Ceph configuration file. For example, you may add something like the following line to you Ceph configuration file:

keyring = /path/to/ceph.client.admin.keyring

For additional details on modifying your configuration via Python, see Configuration.

Connect to the Cluster

Once you have a cluster handle configured, you may connect to the cluster. With a connection to the cluster, you may execute methods that return information about the cluster.

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     import rados, sys

     cluster = rados.Rados(conffile='ceph.conf')
     print("\nlibrados version: {}".format(str(cluster.version())))
     print("Will attempt to connect to: {}".format(str(cluster.conf_get('mon host'))))

     cluster.connect()
     print("\nCluster ID: {}".format(cluster.get_fsid()))

     print("\n\nCluster Statistics")
     print("==================")
     cluster_stats = cluster.get_cluster_stats()

     for key, value in cluster_stats.items():
             print(key, value)

By default, Ceph authentication is on. Your application will need to know the location of the keyring. The python-ceph module doesn’t have the default location, so you need to specify the keyring path. The easiest way to specify the keyring is to add it to the Ceph configuration file. The following Ceph configuration file example uses the client.admin keyring.

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     [global]
     # ... elided configuration
     keyring=/path/to/keyring/ceph.client.admin.keyring

Manage Pools

When connected to the cluster, the Rados API allows you to manage pools. You can list pools, check for the existence of a pool, create a pool and delete a pool.

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     print("\n\nPool Operations")
     print("===============")

     print("\nAvailable Pools")
     print("----------------")
     pools = cluster.list_pools()

     for pool in pools:
             print(pool)

     print("\nCreate 'test' Pool")
     print("------------------")
     cluster.create_pool('test')

     print("\nPool named 'test' exists: {}".format(str(cluster.pool_exists('test'))))
     print("\nVerify 'test' Pool Exists")
     print("-------------------------")
     pools = cluster.list_pools()

     for pool in pools:
             print(pool)

     print("\nDelete 'test' Pool")
     print("------------------")
     cluster.delete_pool('test')
     print("\nPool named 'test' exists: {}".format(str(cluster.pool_exists('test'))))

Input/Output Context

Reading from and writing to the Ceph Storage Cluster requires an input/output context (ioctx). You can create an ioctx with the open_ioctx() or open_ioctx2() method of the Rados class. The ioctx_name parameter is the name of the pool and pool_id is the ID of the pool you wish to use.

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     ioctx = cluster.open_ioctx('data')

or

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     ioctx = cluster.open_ioctx2(pool_id)

Once you have an I/O context, you can read/write objects, extended attributes, and perform a number of other operations. After you complete operations, ensure that you close the connection. For example:

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     print("\nClosing the connection.")
     ioctx.close()

Writing, Reading and Removing Objects

Once you create an I/O context, you can write objects to the cluster. If you write to an object that doesn’t exist, Ceph creates it. If you write to an object that exists, Ceph overwrites it (except when you specify a range, and then it only overwrites the range). You may read objects (and object ranges) from the cluster. You may also remove objects from the cluster. For example:

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print("\nWriting object 'hw' with contents 'Hello World!' to pool 'data'.")
ioctx.write_full("hw", "Hello World!")

print("\n\nContents of object 'hw'\n------------------------\n")
print(ioctx.read("hw"))

print("\nRemoving object 'hw'")
ioctx.remove_object("hw")

Writing and Reading XATTRS

Once you create an object, you can write extended attributes (XATTRs) to the object and read XATTRs from the object. For example:

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print("\n\nWriting XATTR 'lang' with value 'en_US' to object 'hw'")
ioctx.set_xattr("hw", "lang", "en_US")

print("\n\nGetting XATTR 'lang' from object 'hw'\n")
print(ioctx.get_xattr("hw", "lang"))

Listing Objects

If you want to examine the list of objects in a pool, you may retrieve the list of objects and iterate over them with the object iterator. For example:

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object_iterator = ioctx.list_objects()

while True :

        try :
                rados_object = object_iterator.__next__()
                print("Object contents = {}".format(rados_object.read()))

        except StopIteration :
                break

# Or alternatively
[print("Object contents = {}".format(obj.read())) for obj in ioctx.list_objects()]

The Object class provides a file-like interface to an object, allowing you to read and write content and extended attributes. Object operations using the I/O context provide additional functionality and asynchronous capabilities.

Cluster Handle API

The Rados class provides an interface into the Ceph Storage Daemon.

Configuration

The Rados class provides methods for getting and setting configuration values, reading the Ceph configuration file, and parsing arguments. You do not need to be connected to the Ceph Storage Cluster to invoke the following methods. See Storage Cluster Configuration for details on settings.

Rados.conf_get(option)

Rados.conf_get(self, unicode option: str) -> Optional[str]

Get the value of a configuration option

Parameters

option (str) – which option to read

Return type

Optional[str]

Returns

value of the option or None

Raises

TypeError

Rados.conf_set(option, val)

Rados.conf_set(self, unicode option: str, unicode val: str)

Set the value of a configuration option

Parameters
  • option (str) – which option to set

  • option – value of the option

Raises

TypeError, ObjectNotFound

Rados.conf_read_file(path)

Rados.conf_read_file(self, path: Optional[str] = None)

Configure the cluster handle using a Ceph config file.

Parameters

path (Optional[str]) – path to the config file

Rados.conf_parse_argv(args)

Rados.conf_parse_argv(self, args: Sequence[str])

Parse known arguments from args, and remove; returned args contain only those unknown to ceph

Rados.version()

Rados.version(self) -> Version

Get the version number of the librados C library.

Return type

Version

Returns

a tuple of (major, minor, extra) components of the librados version

Connection Management

Once you configure your cluster handle, you may connect to the cluster, check the cluster fsid, retrieve cluster statistics, and disconnect (shutdown) from the cluster. You may also assert that the cluster handle is in a particular state (e.g., “configuring”, “connecting”, etc.).

Rados.connect(timeout)

Rados.connect(self, timeout: int = 0)

Connect to the cluster. Use shutdown() to release resources.

Rados.shutdown()

Rados.shutdown(self)

Disconnects from the cluster. Call this explicitly when a Rados.connect()ed object is no longer used.

Rados.get_fsid()

Rados.get_fsid(self) -> str

Get the fsid of the cluster as a hexadecimal string.

Raises

Error

Return type

str

Returns

cluster fsid

Rados.get_cluster_stats()

Rados.get_cluster_stats(self) -> Dict[str, int]

Read usage info about the cluster

This tells you total space, space used, space available, and number of objects. These are not updated immediately when data is written, they are eventually consistent. :rtype: Dict[str, int] :returns: contains the following keys:

  • kb (int) - total space

  • kb_used (int) - space used

  • kb_avail (int) - free space available

  • num_objects (int) - number of objects

class rados.Rados
require_state(*args)

Checks if the Rados object is in a special state

Parameters

args – Any number of states to check as separate arguments

Raises

RadosStateError

Pool Operations

To use pool operation methods, you must connect to the Ceph Storage Cluster first. You may list the available pools, create a pool, check to see if a pool exists, and delete a pool.

Rados.list_pools()

Rados.list_pools(self) -> List[str]

Gets a list of pool names.

Return type

List[str]

Returns

list of pool names.

Rados.create_pool(pool_name, crush_rule, auid)

Rados.create_pool(self, unicode pool_name: str, crush_rule: Optional[int] = None, auid: Optional[int] = None)

Create a pool: - with default settings: if crush_rule=None and auid=None - with a specific CRUSH rule: crush_rule given - with a specific auid: auid given - with a specific CRUSH rule and auid: crush_rule and auid given

Parameters
  • pool_name (str) – name of the pool to create

  • crush_rule (Optional[int]) – rule to use for placement in the new pool

  • auid (Optional[int]) – id of the owner of the new pool

Raises

TypeError, Error

Rados.pool_exists(pool_name)

Rados.pool_exists(self, unicode pool_name: str) -> bool

Checks if a given pool exists.

Parameters

pool_name (str) – name of the pool to check

Raises

TypeError, Error

Return type

bool

Returns

whether the pool exists, false otherwise.

Rados.delete_pool(pool_name)

Rados.delete_pool(self, unicode pool_name: str)

Delete a pool and all data inside it.

The pool is removed from the cluster immediately, but the actual data is deleted in the background.

Parameters

pool_name (str) – name of the pool to delete

Raises

TypeError, Error

CLI Commands

The Ceph CLI command is internally using the following librados Python binding methods.

In order to send a command, choose the correct method and choose the correct target.

Rados.mon_command(cmd, inbuf, timeout, target)

Send a command to the mon.

mon_command[_target](cmd, inbuf, outbuf, outbuflen, outs, outslen)

Parameters
  • cmd (str) – JSON formatted string.

  • inbuf (bytes) – optional string.

  • timeout (int) – This parameter is ignored.

  • target (Union[str, int, None]) – name or rank of a specific mon. Optional

Return type

Tuple[int, bytes, str]

Returns

(int ret, string outbuf, string outs)

Example:

>>> import json
>>> c = Rados(conffile='/etc/ceph/ceph.conf')
>>> c.connect()
>>> cmd = json.dumps({"prefix": "osd safe-to-destroy", "ids": ["2"], "format": "json"})
>>> c.mon_command(cmd, b'')
Rados.osd_command(osdid, cmd, inbuf, timeout)

osd_command(osdid, cmd, inbuf, outbuf, outbuflen, outs, outslen)

Return type

Tuple[int, bytes, str]

Returns

(int ret, string outbuf, string outs)

Rados.mgr_command(cmd, inbuf, timeout, target)
Return type

Tuple[int, str, bytes]

Returns

(int ret, string outbuf, string outs)

Rados.pg_command(pgid, cmd, inbuf, timeout)

pg_command(pgid, cmd, inbuf, outbuf, outbuflen, outs, outslen)

Return type

Tuple[int, bytes, str]

Returns

(int ret, string outbuf, string outs)

Input/Output Context API

To write data to and read data from the Ceph Object Store, you must create an Input/Output context (ioctx). The Rados class provides open_ioctx() and open_ioctx2() methods. The remaining ioctx operations involve invoking methods of the Ioctx and other classes.

Rados.open_ioctx(ioctx_name)

Rados.open_ioctx(self, unicode ioctx_name: str) -> Ioctx

Create an io context

The io context allows you to perform operations within a particular pool.

Parameters

ioctx_name (str) – name of the pool

Raises

TypeError, Error

Return type

Ioctx

Returns

Rados Ioctx object

Ioctx.require_ioctx_open()

Ioctx.require_ioctx_open(self)

Checks if the rados.Ioctx object state is ‘open’

Raises

IoctxStateError

Ioctx.get_stats()

Ioctx.get_stats(self) -> Dict[str, int]

Get pool usage statistics

Return type

Dict[str, int]

Returns

dict contains the following keys:

  • num_bytes (int) - size of pool in bytes

  • num_kb (int) - size of pool in kbytes

  • num_objects (int) - number of objects in the pool

  • num_object_clones (int) - number of object clones

  • num_object_copies (int) - number of object copies

  • num_objects_missing_on_primary (int) - number of objets

    missing on primary

  • num_objects_unfound (int) - number of unfound objects

  • num_objects_degraded (int) - number of degraded objects

  • num_rd (int) - bytes read

  • num_rd_kb (int) - kbytes read

  • num_wr (int) - bytes written

  • num_wr_kb (int) - kbytes written

Ioctx.get_last_version()

Ioctx.get_last_version(self) -> int

Return the version of the last object read or written to.

This exposes the internal version number of the last object read or written via this io context

Return type

int

Returns

version of the last object used

Ioctx.close()

Ioctx.close(self)

Close a rados.Ioctx object.

This just tells librados that you no longer need to use the io context. It may not be freed immediately if there are pending asynchronous requests on it, but you should not use an io context again after calling this function on it.

Object Operations

The Ceph Storage Cluster stores data as objects. You can read and write objects synchronously or asynchronously. You can read and write from offsets. An object has a name (or key) and data.

Ioctx.aio_write(object_name, to_write, offset, oncomplete, onsafe)

Ioctx.aio_write(self, unicode object_name: str, bytes to_write: bytes, offset: int = 0, oncomplete: Optional[Callable[[Completion], None]] = None, onsafe: Optional[Callable[[Completion], None]] = None) -> Completion

Write data to an object asynchronously

Queues the write and returns.

Parameters
  • object_name (str) – name of the object

  • to_write (bytes) – data to write

  • offset (int) – byte offset in the object to begin writing at

  • oncomplete (Optional[Callable[[Completion], None]]) – what to do when the write is safe and complete in memory on all replicas

  • onsafe (Optional[Callable[[Completion], None]]) – what to do when the write is safe and complete on storage on all replicas

Raises

Error

Return type

Completion

Returns

completion object

Ioctx.aio_write_full(object_name, to_write, oncomplete, onsafe)

Ioctx.aio_write_full(self, unicode object_name: str, bytes to_write: bytes, oncomplete: Optional[Callable] = None, onsafe: Optional[Callable] = None) -> Completion

Asynchronously write an entire object

The object is filled with the provided data. If the object exists, it is atomically truncated and then written. Queues the write and returns.

Parameters
  • object_name (str) – name of the object

  • to_write (bytes) – data to write

  • oncomplete (Optional[Callable]) – what to do when the write is safe and complete in memory on all replicas

  • onsafe (Optional[Callable]) – what to do when the write is safe and complete on storage on all replicas

Raises

Error

Return type

Completion

Returns

completion object

Ioctx.aio_append(object_name, to_append, oncomplete, onsafe)

Ioctx.aio_append(self, unicode object_name: str, bytes to_append: bytes, oncomplete: Optional[Callable] = None, onsafe: Optional[Callable] = None) -> Completion

Asynchronously append data to an object

Queues the write and returns.

Parameters
  • object_name (str) – name of the object

  • to_append (bytes) – data to append

  • offset – byte offset in the object to begin writing at

  • oncomplete (Optional[Callable]) – what to do when the write is safe and complete in memory on all replicas

  • onsafe (Optional[Callable]) – what to do when the write is safe and complete on storage on all replicas

Raises

Error

Return type

Completion

Returns

completion object

Ioctx.write(key, data, offset)

Ioctx.write(self, unicode key: str, bytes data: bytes, offset: int = 0)

Write data to an object synchronously

Parameters
  • key (str) – name of the object

  • data (bytes) – data to write

  • offset (int) – byte offset in the object to begin writing at

Raises

TypeError

Raises

LogicError

Returns

int - 0 on success

Ioctx.write_full(key, data)

Ioctx.write_full(self, unicode key: str, bytes data: bytes)

Write an entire object synchronously.

The object is filled with the provided data. If the object exists, it is atomically truncated and then written.

Parameters
  • key (str) – name of the object

  • data (bytes) – data to write

Raises

TypeError

Raises

Error

Returns

int - 0 on success

Ioctx.aio_flush()

Ioctx.aio_flush(self)

Block until all pending writes in an io context are safe

Raises

Error

Ioctx.set_locator_key(loc_key)

Ioctx.set_locator_key(self, unicode loc_key: str)

Set the key for mapping objects to pgs within an io context.

The key is used instead of the object name to determine which placement groups an object is put in. This affects all subsequent operations of the io context - until a different locator key is set, all objects in this io context will be placed in the same pg.

Parameters

loc_key (str) – the key to use as the object locator, or NULL to discard any previously set key

Raises

TypeError

Ioctx.aio_read(object_name, length, offset, oncomplete)

Ioctx.aio_read(self, unicode object_name: str, length: int, offset: int, oncomplete: Optional[Callable] = None) -> Completion

Asynchronously read data from an object

oncomplete will be called with the returned read value as well as the completion:

oncomplete(completion, data_read)

Parameters
  • object_name (str) – name of the object to read from

  • length (int) – the number of bytes to read

  • offset (int) – byte offset in the object to begin reading from

  • oncomplete (Optional[Callable]) – what to do when the read is complete

Raises

Error

Return type

Completion

Returns

completion object

Ioctx.read(key, length, offset)

Ioctx.read(self, unicode key: str, length: int = 8192, offset: int = 0) -> bytes

Read data from an object synchronously

Parameters
  • key (str) – name of the object

  • length (int) – the number of bytes to read (default=8192)

  • offset (int) – byte offset in the object to begin reading at

Raises

TypeError

Raises

Error

Return type

bytes

Returns

data read from object

Ioctx.stat(key)

Ioctx.stat(self, unicode key: str) -> Tuple[int, time.struct_time]

Get object stats (size/mtime)

Parameters

key (str) – the name of the object to get stats from

Raises

TypeError

Raises

Error

Return type

Tuple[int, struct_time]

Returns

(size,timestamp)

Ioctx.trunc(key, size)

Ioctx.trunc(self, unicode key: str, size: int) -> int

Resize an object

If this enlarges the object, the new area is logically filled with zeroes. If this shrinks the object, the excess data is removed.

Parameters
  • key (str) – the name of the object to resize

  • size (int) – the new size of the object in bytes

Raises

TypeError

Raises

Error

Return type

int

Returns

0 on success, otherwise raises error

Ioctx.remove_object(key)

Ioctx.remove_object(self, unicode key: str) -> bool

Delete an object

This does not delete any snapshots of the object.

Parameters

key (str) – the name of the object to delete

Raises

TypeError

Raises

Error

Return type

bool

Returns

True on success

Object Extended Attributes

You may set extended attributes (XATTRs) on an object. You can retrieve a list of objects or XATTRs and iterate over them.

Ioctx.set_xattr(key, xattr_name, xattr_value)

Ioctx.set_xattr(self, unicode key: str, unicode xattr_name: str, bytes xattr_value: bytes) -> bool

Set an extended attribute on an object.

Parameters
  • key (str) – the name of the object to set xattr to

  • xattr_name (str) – which extended attribute to set

  • xattr_value (bytes) – the value of the extended attribute

Raises

TypeError

Raises

Error

Return type

bool

Returns

True on success, otherwise raise an error

Ioctx.get_xattrs(oid)

Ioctx.get_xattrs(self, unicode oid: str) -> XattrIterator

Start iterating over xattrs on an object.

Parameters

oid (str) – the name of the object to get xattrs from

Raises

TypeError

Raises

Error

Return type

XattrIterator

Returns

XattrIterator

XattrIterator.__next__()

Get the next xattr on the object

Raises

StopIteration

Returns

pair - of name and value of the next Xattr

Ioctx.get_xattr(key, xattr_name)

Ioctx.get_xattr(self, unicode key: str, unicode xattr_name: str) -> bytes

Get the value of an extended attribute on an object.

Parameters
  • key (str) – the name of the object to get xattr from

  • xattr_name (str) – which extended attribute to read

Raises

TypeError

Raises

Error

Return type

bytes

Returns

value of the xattr

Ioctx.rm_xattr(key, xattr_name)

Ioctx.rm_xattr(self, unicode key: str, unicode xattr_name: str) -> bool

Removes an extended attribute on from an object.

Parameters
  • key (str) – the name of the object to remove xattr from

  • xattr_name (str) – which extended attribute to remove

Raises

TypeError

Raises

Error

Return type

bool

Returns

True on success, otherwise raise an error

Object Interface

From an I/O context, you can retrieve a list of objects from a pool and iterate over them. The object interface provide makes each object look like a file, and you may perform synchronous operations on the objects. For asynchronous operations, you should use the I/O context methods.

Ioctx.list_objects()

Ioctx.list_objects(self) -> ObjectIterator

Get ObjectIterator on rados.Ioctx object.

Return type

ObjectIterator

Returns

ObjectIterator

ObjectIterator.__next__()

Get the next object name and locator in the pool

Raises

StopIteration

Returns

next rados.Ioctx Object

Object.read(length=1024 * 1024)
Object.write(string_to_write)
Object.get_xattrs()
Object.get_xattr(xattr_name)
Object.set_xattr(xattr_name, xattr_value)
Object.rm_xattr(xattr_name)
Object.stat()
Object.remove()