Notice

This document is for a development version of Ceph.

HashiCorp Vault Integration

HashiCorp Vault can be used as a secure key management service for Server-Side Encryption (SSE-KMS).

  1. Vault secrets engines

  2. Vault authentication

  3. Vault namespaces

  4. Create a key in Vault

  5. Configure the Ceph Object Gateway

  6. Upload object

Some examples below use the Vault command line utility to interact with Vault. You may need to set the following environment variable with the correct address of your Vault server to use this utility:

export VAULT_ADDR='https://vault-server-fqdn:8200'

Vault secrets engines

Vault provides several secrets engines, which can store, generate, and encrypt data. Currently, the Object Gateway supports:

KV secrets engine

The KV secrets engine is used to store arbitrary key/value secrets in Vault. To enable the KV engine version 2 in Vault, use the following command:

vault secrets enable -path secret kv-v2

The Object Gateway can be configured to use the KV engine version 2 with the following setting:

rgw crypt vault secret engine = kv

Transit secrets engine

The transit engine handles cryptographic functions on data in-transit. To enable it in Vault, use the following command:

vault secrets enable transit

The Object Gateway can be configured to use the transit engine with the following setting:

rgw crypt vault secret engine = transit

Vault authentication

Vault supports several authentication mechanisms. Currently, the Object Gateway can be configured to authenticate to Vault using the Token authentication method or a Vault agent.

Most tokens in Vault have limited lifetimes and powers. The only sort of Vault token that does not have a lifetime are root tokens. For all other tokens, it is necesary to periodically refresh them, either by performing initial authentication, or by renewing the token. Ceph does not have any logic to perform either operation. The simplest best way to use Vault tokens with ceph is to also run the Vault agent and have it refresh the token file. When the Vault agent is used in this mode, file system permissions can be used to restrict who has the use of tokens.

Instead of having Vault agent refresh a token file, it can be told to act as a proxy server. In this mode, Vault will add a token when necessary and add it to requests passed to it before forwarding them on to the real server. Vault agent will still handle token renewal just as it would when storing a token in the filesystem. In this mode, it is necessary to properly secure the network path rgw uses to reach the Vault agent, such as having the Vault agent listen only to localhost.

Token policies for the object gateway

All Vault tokens have powers as specified by the polices attached to that token. Multiple policies may be associated with one token. You should only use the policy necessary for your configuration.

When using the kv secret engine with the object gateway:

vault policy write rgw-kv-policy -<<EOF
  path "secret/data/*" {
    capabilities = ["read"]
  }
EOF

When using the transit secret engine with the object gateway:

vault policy write rgw-transit-policy -<<EOF
  path "transit/keys/*" {
    capabilities = [ "create", "update" ]
    denied_parameters = {"exportable" = [], "allow_plaintext_backup" = [] }
  }

  path "transit/keys/*" {
    capabilities = ["read", "delete"]
  }

  path "transit/keys/" {
    capabilities = ["list"]
  }

  path "transit/keys/+/rotate" {
    capabilities = [ "update" ]
  }

  path "transit/*" {
    capabilities = [ "update" ]
  }
EOF

If you had previously used an older version of ceph with the transit secret engine, you might need the following policy:

vault policy write old-rgw-transit-policy -<<EOF
  path "transit/export/encryption-key/*" {
    capabilities = ["read"]
  }
EOF

Token authentication

The token authentication method expects a Vault token to be present in a plaintext file. The Object Gateway can be configured to use token authentication with the following settings:

rgw crypt vault auth = token
rgw crypt vault token file = /run/.rgw-vault-token
rgw crypt vault addr = https://vault-server-fqdn:8200

Adjust these settinsg to match your configuration. For security reasons, the token file must be readable by the Object Gateway only.

You might set up vault agent as follows:

vault write auth/approle/role/rgw-ap \
  token_policies=rgw-transit-policy,default \
  token_max_ttl=60m

Change the policy here to match your configuration.

Get the role-id:

vault read auth/approle/role/rgw-ap/role-id -format=json | \
  jq -r .data.role_id

Store the output in some file, such as /usr/local/etc/vault/.rgw-ap-role-id

Get the secret-id:

vault read auth/approle/role/rgw-ap/role-id -format=json | \
  jq -r .data.role_id

Store the output in some file, such as /usr/local/etc/vault/.rgw-ap-secret-id

Create configuration for the Vault agent, such as:

pid_file = "/run/rgw-vault-agent-pid"
auto_auth {
  method "AppRole" {
    mount_path = "auth/approle"
    config = {
      role_id_file_path ="/usr/local/etc/vault/.rgw-ap-role-id"
      secret_id_file_path ="/usr/local/etc/vault/.rgw-ap-secret-id"
      remove_secret_id_file_after_reading ="false"
    }
  }
  sink "file" {
    config = {
      path = "/run/.rgw-vault-token"
    }
  }
}
vault {
  address = "https://vault-server-fqdn:8200"
}

Then use systemctl or another method of your choice to run a persistent daemon with the following arguments:

/usr/local/bin/vault agent -config=/usr/local/etc/vault/rgw-agent.hcl

Once the vault agent is running, the token file should be populated with a valid token.

Vault agent

The Vault agent is a client daemon that provides authentication to Vault and manages token renewal and caching. It typically runs on the same host as the Object Gateway. With a Vault agent, it is possible to use other Vault authentication mechanism such as AppRole, AWS, Certs, JWT, and Azure.

The Object Gateway can be configured to use a Vault agent with the following settings:

rgw crypt vault auth = agent
rgw crypt vault addr = http://127.0.0.1:8100

You might set up vault agent as follows:

vault write auth/approle/role/rgw-ap \
  token_policies=rgw-transit-policy,default \
  token_max_ttl=60m

Change the policy here to match your configuration.

Get the role-id:
vault read auth/approle/role/rgw-ap/role-id -format=json |

jq -r .data.role_id

Store the output in some file, such as /usr/local/etc/vault/.rgw-ap-role-id

Get the secret-id:
vault read auth/approle/role/rgw-ap/role-id -format=json |

jq -r .data.role_id

Store the output in some file, such as /usr/local/etc/vault/.rgw-ap-secret-id

Create configuration for the Vault agent, such as:

pid_file = "/run/rgw-vault-agent-pid"
auto_auth {
  method "AppRole" {
    mount_path = "auth/approle"
    config = {
      role_id_file_path ="/usr/local/etc/vault/.rgw-ap-role-id"
      secret_id_file_path ="/usr/local/etc/vault/.rgw-ap-secret-id"
      remove_secret_id_file_after_reading ="false"
    }
  }
}
cache {
  use_auto_auth_token = true
}
listener "tcp" {
  address = "127.0.0.1:8100"
  tls_disable = true
}
vault {
  address = "https://vault-server-fqdn:8200"
}

Then use systemctl or another method of your choice to run a persistent daemon with the following arguments:

/usr/local/bin/vault agent -config=/usr/local/etc/vault/rgw-agent.hcl

Once the vault agent is running, you should find it listening to port 8100 on localhost, and you should be able to interact with it using the vault command.

Vault namespaces

In the Enterprise version, Vault supports the concept of namespaces, which allows centralized management for teams within an organization while ensuring that those teams operate within isolated environments known as tenants.

The Object Gateway can be configured to access Vault within a particular namespace using the following configuration setting:

rgw crypt vault namespace = tenant1

Create a key in Vault

Note

Keys for server-side encryption must be 256-bit long and base-64 encoded.

Using the KV engine

A key for server-side encryption can be created in the KV version 2 engine using the command line utility, as in the following example:

vault kv put secret/myproject/mybucketkey key=$(openssl rand -base64 32)

Sample output:

====== Metadata ======
Key              Value
---              -----
created_time     2019-08-29T17:01:09.095824999Z
deletion_time    n/a
destroyed        false
version          1

Note that in the KV secrets engine, secrets are stored as key-value pairs, and the Gateway expects the key name to be key, i.e. the secret must be in the form key=<secret key>.

Using the Transit engine

Keys created for use with the Transit engine should no longer be marked exportable. They can be created with:

vault write -f transit/keys/mybucketkey

The command above creates a keyring, which contains a key of type aes256-gcm96 by default. To verify that the key was correctly created, use the following command:

vault read transit/mybucketkey

Sample output:

Key     Value
---     -----
derived                   false
exportable                false
name                      mybucketkey
type                      aes256-gcm96

Configure the Ceph Object Gateway

Edit the Ceph configuration file to enable Vault as a KMS backend for server-side encryption:

rgw crypt s3 kms backend = vault

Choose the Vault authentication method, e.g.:

rgw crypt vault auth = token
rgw crypt vault token file = /run/.rgw-vault-token
rgw crypt vault addr = https://vault-server-fqdn:8200

Or:

rgw crypt vault auth = agent
rgw crypt vault addr = http://localhost:8100

Choose the secrets engine:

rgw crypt vault secret engine = kv

Or:

rgw crypt vault secret engine = transit

Optionally, set the Vault namespace where encryption keys will be fetched from:

rgw crypt vault namespace = tenant1

Finally, the URLs where the Gateway will retrieve encryption keys from Vault can be restricted by setting a path prefix. For instance, the Gateway can be restricted to fetch KV keys as follows:

rgw crypt vault prefix = /v1/secret/data

Or, when using the transit secret engine:

rgw crypt vault prefix = /v1/transit

In the example above, the Gateway would only fetch transit encryption keys under https://vault-server:8200/v1/transit.

You can use custom ssl certs to authenticate with vault with help of following options:

rgw crypt vault verify ssl = true
rgw crypt vault ssl cacert = /etc/ceph/vault.ca
rgw crypt vault ssl clientcert = /etc/ceph/vault.crt
rgw crypt vault ssl clientkey = /etc/ceph/vault.key

where vault.ca is CA certificate and vault.key/vault.crt are private key and ssl ceritificate generated for RGW to access the vault server. It highly recommended to set this option true, setting false is very dangerous and need to avoid since this runs in very secured enviroments.

Transit engine compatibility support

The transit engine has compatibility support for previous versions of ceph, which used the transit engine as a simple key store.

There is a a “compat” option which can be given to the transit engine to configure the compatibility support,

To entirely disable backwards support, use:

rgw crypt vault secret engine = transit compat=0

This will be the default in future verisons. and is safe to use for new installs using the current version.

This is the normal default with the current version:

rgw crypt vault secret engine = transit compat=1

This enables the new engine for newly created objects, but still allows the old engine to be used for old objects. In order to access old and new objects, the vault token given to ceph must have both the old and new transit policies.

To force use of only the old engine, use:

rgw crypt vault secret engine = transit compat=2

This mode is automatically selected if the vault prefix ends in export/encryption-key, which was the previously documented setting.

Upload object

When uploading an object to the Gateway, provide the SSE key ID in the request. As an example, for the kv engine, using the AWS command-line client:

aws --endpoint=http://radosgw:8000 s3 cp plaintext.txt s3://mybucket/encrypted.txt --sse=aws:kms --sse-kms-key-id myproject/mybucketkey

As an example, for the transit engine (new flavor), using the AWS command-line client:

aws --endpoint=http://radosgw:8000 s3 cp plaintext.txt s3://mybucket/encrypted.txt --sse=aws:kms --sse-kms-key-id mybucketkey

The Object Gateway will fetch the key from Vault, encrypt the object and store it in the bucket. Any request to download the object will make the Gateway automatically retrieve the correspondent key from Vault and decrypt the object.

Note that the secret will be fetched from Vault using a URL constructed by concatenating the base address (rgw crypt vault addr), the (optional) URL prefix (rgw crypt vault prefix), and finally the key ID.

In the kv engine example above, the Gateway would fetch the secret from:

http://vaultserver:8200/v1/secret/data/myproject/mybucketkey

In the transit engine example above, the Gateway would encrypt the secret using this key:

http://vaultserver:8200/v1/transit/mybucketkey