Notice

This document is for a development version of Ceph.

# FULL OSDMAP VERSION PRUNING¶

For each incremental osdmap epoch, the monitor will keep a full osdmap epoch in the store.

While this is great when serving osdmap requests from clients, allowing us to fulfill their request without having to recompute the full osdmap from a myriad of incrementals, it can also become a burden once we start keeping an unbounded number of osdmaps.

The monitors will attempt to keep a bounded number of osdmaps in the store. This number is defined (and configurable) via mon_min_osdmap_epochs, and defaults to 500 epochs. Generally speaking, we will remove older osdmap epochs once we go over this limit.

However, there are a few constraints to removing osdmaps. These are all defined in OSDMonitor::get_trim_to().

In the event one of these conditions is not met, we may go over the bounds defined by mon_min_osdmap_epochs. And if the cluster does not meet the trim criteria for some time (e.g., unclean pgs), the monitor may start keeping a lot of osdmaps. This can start putting pressure on the underlying key/value store, as well as on the available disk space.

One way to mitigate this problem would be to stop keeping full osdmap epochs on disk. We would have to rebuild osdmaps on-demand, or grab them from cache if they had been recently served. We would still have to keep at least one osdmap, and apply all incrementals on top of either this oldest map epoch kept in the store or a more recent map grabbed from cache. While this would be feasible, it seems like a lot of cpu (and potentially IO) would be going into rebuilding osdmaps.

Additionally, this would prevent the aforementioned problem going forward, but would do nothing for stores currently in a state that would truly benefit from not keeping osdmaps.

This brings us to full osdmap pruning.

Instead of not keeping full osdmap epochs, we are going to prune some of them when we have too many.

Deciding whether we have too many will be dictated by a configurable option mon_osdmap_full_prune_min (default: 10000). The pruning algorithm will be engaged once we go over this threshold.

We will not remove all mon_osdmap_full_prune_min full osdmap epochs though. Instead, we are going to poke some holes in the sequence of full maps. By default, we will keep one full osdmap per 10 maps since the last map kept; i.e., if we keep epoch 1, we will also keep epoch 10 and remove full map epochs 2 to 9. The size of this interval is configurable with mon_osdmap_full_prune_interval.

Essentially, we are proposing to keep ~10% of the full maps, but we will always honour the minimum number of osdmap epochs, as defined by mon_min_osdmap_epochs, and these won’t be used for the count of the minimum versions to prune. For instance, if we have on-disk versions [1..50000], we would allow the pruning algorithm to operate only over osdmap epochs [1..49500); but, if have on-disk versions [1..10200], we won’t be pruning because the algorithm would only operate on versions [1..9700), and this interval contains less versions than the minimum required by mon_osdmap_full_prune_min.

## ALGORITHM¶

Say we have 50,000 osdmap epochs in the store, and we’re using the defaults for all configurable options.

-----------------------------------------------------------
|1|2|..|10|11|..|100|..|1000|..|10000|10001|..|49999|50000|
-----------------------------------------------------------
^ first                                            last ^


We will prune when all the following constraints are met:

1. number of versions is greater than mon_min_osdmap_epochs;

2. the number of versions between first and prune_to is greater (or equal) than mon_osdmap_full_prune_min, with prune_to being equal to last minus mon_min_osdmap_epochs.

If any of these conditions fails, we will not prune any maps.

Furthermore, if it is known that we have been pruning, but since then we are no longer satisfying at least one of the above constraints, we will not continue to prune. In essence, we only prune full osdmaps if the number of epochs in the store so warrants it.

As pruning will create gaps in the sequence of full maps, we need to keep track of the intervals of missing maps. We do this by keeping a manifest of pinned maps – i.e., a list of maps that, by being pinned, are not to be pruned.

While pinned maps are not removed from the store, maps between two consecutive pinned maps will; and the number of maps to be removed will be dictated by the configurable option mon_osdmap_full_prune_interval. The algorithm makes an effort to keep pinned maps apart by as many maps as defined by this option, but in the event of corner cases it may allow smaller intervals. Additionally, as this is a configurable option that is read any time a prune iteration occurs, there is the possibility this interval will change if the user changes this config option.

Pinning maps is performed lazily: we will be pinning maps as we are removing maps. This grants us more flexibility to change the prune interval while pruning is happening, but also simplifies considerably the algorithm, as well as the information we need to keep in the manifest. Below we show a simplified version of the algorithm::

manifest.pin(first)
last_to_prune = last - mon_min_osdmap_epochs

while manifest.get_last_pinned() + prune_interval < last_to_prune AND
last_to_prune - first > mon_min_osdmap_epochs AND
last_to_prune - first > mon_osdmap_full_prune_min AND
num_pruned < mon_osdmap_full_prune_txsize:

last_pinned = manifest.get_last_pinned()
new_pinned = last_pinned + prune_interval
manifest.pin(new_pinned)
for e in (last_pinned .. new_pinned):
store.erase(e)
++num_pruned


In essence, the algorithm ensures that the first version in the store is always pinned. After all, we need a starting point when rebuilding maps, and we can’t simply remove the earliest map we have; otherwise we would be unable to rebuild maps for the very first pruned interval.

Once we have at least one pinned map, each iteration of the algorithm can simply base itself on the manifest’s last pinned map (which we can obtain by reading the element at the tail of the manifest’s pinned maps list).

We’ll next need to determine the interval of maps to be removed: all the maps from last_pinned up to new_pinned, which in turn is nothing more than last_pinned plus mon_osdmap_full_prune_interval. We know that all maps between these two values, last_pinned and new_pinned can be removed, considering new_pinned has been pinned.

The algorithm ceases to execute as soon as one of the two initial preconditions is not met, or if we do not meet two additional conditions that have no weight on the algorithm’s correctness:

1. We will stop if we are not able to create a new pruning interval properly aligned with mon_osdmap_full_prune_interval that is lower than last_pruned. There is no particular technical reason why we enforce this requirement, besides allowing us to keep the intervals with an expected size, and preventing small, irregular intervals that would be bound to happen eventually (e.g., pruning continues over the course of several iterations, removing one or two or three maps each time).

2. We will stop once we know that we have pruned more than a certain number of maps. This value is defined by mon_osdmap_full_prune_txsize, and ensures we don’t spend an unbounded number of cycles pruning maps. We don’t enforce this value religiously (deletes do not cost much), but we make an effort to honor it.

We could do the removal in one go, but we have no idea how long that would take. Therefore, we will perform several iterations, removing at most mon_osdmap_full_prune_txsize osdmaps per iteration.

In the end, our on-disk map sequence will look similar to:

------------------------------------------
|1|10|20|30|..|49500|49501|..|49999|50000|
------------------------------------------
^ first                           last ^


Because we are not pruning all versions in one go, we need to keep state about how far along on our pruning we are. With that in mind, we have created a data structure, osdmap_manifest_t, that holds the set of pinned maps::

struct osdmap_manifest_t:
set<version_t> pinned;


Given we are only pinning maps while we are pruning, we don’t need to keep track of additional state about the last pruned version. We know as a matter of fact that we have pruned all the intermediate maps between any two consecutive pinned maps.

The question one could ask, though, is how can we be sure we pruned all the intermediate maps if, for instance, the monitor crashes. To ensure we are protected against such an event, we always write the osdmap manifest to disk on the same transaction that is deleting the maps. This way we have the guarantee that, if the monitor crashes, we will read the latest version of the manifest: either containing the newly pinned maps, meaning we also pruned the in-between maps; or we will find the previous version of the osdmap manifest, which will not contain the maps we were pinning at the time we crashed, given the transaction on which we would be writing the updated osdmap manifest was not applied (alongside with the maps removal).

The osdmap manifest will be written to the store each time we prune, with an updated list of pinned maps. It is written in the transaction effectively pruning the maps, so we guarantee the manifest is always up to date. As a consequence of this criteria, the first time we will write the osdmap manifest is the first time we prune. If an osdmap manifest does not exist, we can be certain we do not hold pruned map intervals.

We will rely on the manifest to ascertain whether we have pruned maps intervals. In theory, this will always be the on-disk osdmap manifest, but we make sure to read the on-disk osdmap manifest each time we update from paxos; this way we always ensure having an up to date in-memory osdmap manifest.

Once we finish pruning maps, we will keep the manifest in the store, to allow us to easily find which maps have been pinned (instead of checking the store until we find a map). This has the added benefit of allowing us to quickly figure out which is the next interval we need to prune (i.e., last pinned plus the prune interval). This doesn’t however mean we will forever keep the osdmap manifest: the osdmap manifest will no longer be required once the monitor trims osdmaps and the earliest available epoch in the store is greater than the last map we pruned.

The same conditions from OSDMonitor::get_trim_to() that force the monitor to keep a lot of osdmaps, thus requiring us to prune, may eventually change and allow the monitor to remove some of its oldest maps.

### MAP TRIMMING¶

If the monitor trims maps, we must then adjust the osdmap manifest to reflect our pruning status, or remove the manifest entirely if it no longer makes sense to keep it. For instance, take the map sequence from before, but let us assume we did not finish pruning all the maps.:

-------------------------------------------------------------
|1|10|20|30|..|490|500|501|502|..|49500|49501|..|49999|50000|
-------------------------------------------------------------
^ first            ^ pinned.last()                   last ^

pinned = {1, 10, 20, ..., 490, 500}


Now let us assume that the monitor will trim up to epoch 501. This means removing all maps prior to epoch 501, and updating the first_committed pointer to 501. Given removing all those maps would invalidate our existing pruning efforts, we can consider our pruning has finished and drop our osdmap manifest. Doing so also simplifies starting a new prune, if all the starting conditions are met once we refreshed our state from the store.

We would then have the following map sequence:

---------------------------------------
|501|502|..|49500|49501|..|49999|50000|
---------------------------------------
^ first                        last ^


However, imagine a slightly more convoluted scenario: the monitor will trim up to epoch 491. In this case, epoch 491 has been previously pruned from the store.

Given we will always need to have the oldest known map in the store, before we trim we will have to check whether that map is in the prune interval (i.e., if said map epoch belongs to [ pinned.first()..pinned.last() )). If so, we need to check if this is a pinned map, in which case we don’t have much to be concerned aside from removing lower epochs from the manifest’s pinned list. On the other hand, if the map being trimmed to is not a pinned map, we will need to rebuild said map and pin it, and only then will we remove the pinned maps prior to the map’s epoch.

In this case, we would end up with the following sequence::

-----------------------------------------------
|491|500|501|502|..|49500|49501|..|49999|50000|
-----------------------------------------------
^   ^- pinned.last()                   last ^
- first


There is still an edge case that we should mention. Consider that we are going to trim up to epoch 499, which is the very last pruned epoch.

Much like the scenario above, we would end up writing osdmap epoch 499 to the store; but what should we do about pinned maps and pruning?

The simplest solution is to drop the osdmap manifest. After all, given we are trimming to the last pruned map, and we are rebuilding this map, we can guarantee that all maps greater than e 499 are sequential (because we have not pruned any of them). In essence, dropping the osdmap manifest in this case is essentially the same as if we were trimming over the last pruned epoch: we can prune again later if we meet the required conditions.

And, with this, we have fully dwelled into full osdmap pruning. Later in this document one can find detailed REQUIREMENTS, CONDITIONS & INVARIANTS for the whole algorithm, from pruning to trimming. Additionally, the next section details several additional checks to guarantee the sanity of our configuration options. Enjoy.

### CONFIGURATION OPTIONS SANITY CHECKS¶

We perform additional checks before pruning to ensure all configuration options involved are sane:

1. If mon_osdmap_full_prune_interval is zero we will not prune; we require an actual positive number, greater than one, to be able to prune maps. If the interval is one, we would not actually be pruning any maps, as the interval between pinned maps would essentially be a single epoch. This means we would have zero maps in-between pinned maps, hence no maps would ever be pruned.

2. If mon_osdmap_full_prune_min is zero we will not prune; we require a positive, greater than zero, value so we know the threshold over which we should prune. We don’t want to guess.

3. If mon_osdmap_full_prune_interval is greater than mon_osdmap_full_prune_min we will not prune, as it is impossible to ascertain a proper prune interval.

4. If mon_osdmap_full_prune_txsize is lower than mon_osdmap_full_prune_interval we will not prune; we require a txsize with a value at least equal than interval, and (depending on the value of the latter) ideally higher.

### REQUIREMENTS, CONDITIONS & INVARIANTS¶

#### REQUIREMENTS¶

• All monitors in the quorum need to support pruning.

• Once pruning has been enabled, monitors not supporting pruning will not be allowed in the quorum, nor will be allowed to synchronize.

• Removing the osdmap manifest results in disabling the pruning feature quorum requirement. This means that monitors not supporting pruning will be allowed to synchronize and join the quorum, granted they support any other features required.

#### CONDITIONS & INVARIANTS¶

• Pruning has never happened, or we have trimmed past its previous intervals::

invariant: first_committed > 1

condition: pinned.empty() AND !store.exists(manifest)

• Pruning has happened at least once::

invariant: first_committed > 0
invariant: !pinned.empty())
invariant: pinned.first() == first_committed
invariant: pinned.last() < last_committed

precond: pinned.last() < prune_to AND
pinned.last() + prune_interval < prune_to

postcond: pinned.size() > old_pinned.size() AND
(for each v in [pinned.first()..pinned.last()]:
if pinned.count(v) > 0: store.exists_full(v)
else: !store.exists_full(v)
)

• Pruning has finished::

invariant: first_committed > 0
invariant: !pinned.empty()
invariant: pinned.first() == first_committed
invariant: pinned.last() < last_committed

condition: pinned.last() == prune_to OR
pinned.last() + prune_interval < prune_to

• Pruning intervals can be trimmed::

precond:   OSDMonitor::get_trim_to() > 0

condition: !pinned.empty()

invariant: pinned.first() == first_committed
invariant: pinned.last() < last_committed
invariant: pinned.first() <= OSDMonitor::get_trim_to()
invariant: pinned.last() >= OSDMonitor::get_trim_to()

• Trim pruned intervals::

invariant: !pinned.empty()
invariant: pinned.first() == first_committed
invariant: pinned.last() < last_committed
invariant: pinned.first() <= OSDMonitor::get_trim_to()
invariant: pinned.last() >= OSDMonitor::get_trim_to()

postcond:  pinned.empty() OR
(pinned.first() == OSDMonitor::get_trim_to() AND
pinned.last() > pinned.first() AND
(for each v in [0..pinned.first()]:
!store.exists(v) AND
!store.exists_full(v)
) AND
(for each m in [pinned.first()..pinned.last()]:
if pinned.count(m) > 0: store.exists_full(m)
else: !store.exists_full(m) AND store.exists(m)
)
)
postcond:  !pinned.empty() OR
(!store.exists(manifest) AND
(for each v in [pinned.first()..pinned.last()]:
!store.exists(v) AND
!store.exists_full(v)
)
)
`